farm cultivation systemsfarming System Shifting Cultivation/Bush Fallowing. this are the various methods applied by an individual farmer in order to increase yield. there are different types of farming systems but in this post are are going to take look at a few of them.
the following underlisted are some farming systems, their advantages and disadvantages. so tbe first on menu is Bush Fallowing
1. Bush Fallowing farm cultivation system
This is the practice of farming on a piece of land for some years then abandoning it for another piece of land.
bush Fallowing system of farming is mainly done under subsistence agriculture and in areas with abundant farmland.
Under this farm practice, the farmer may not return to the same land in life.
At times, however, he may return after the land has been left fallow (that is, without cultivation) for several years.
The period of no cultivation is termed fallow period, hence this system farm cultivation is also called bush fallowing. as much as this system of farm cultivation is good, there are a few problems associated with Bush fallowing system. but let us look at the advantages of it
Advantages of Bush fallowing system farm cultivation
1. this system of farm cultivation helps to replenish the fertility of the soil in a natural way.
2. another important aspect of of this system of farm cultivation is that it prevents the rapid spread of crop pests-and diseases around the farm .
3. fallow system of farm cultivation helps to control soil erosion.
4. This system reduces farmers’ cost of production in terms of erosion control practices and fertilizer usage.
WEED AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
16. CROP ROTATION
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM
77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
115. MAMMARY GLAND
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM
PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION
127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
133. PROTEIN FATS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
Disadvantages of fallow system of farm cultivation
1. A lot of time and energy is usually spent by farmers in preparing fresh land for planting.
2. fallow system of farm cultivation leads to the destruction of valuable forest resources such as wildlife and timber trees.
3. this system of farming helps to control soil erosion and sometimes encourages sheet erosion
4. The system reduces farmers cost of production in terms of erosion control practices and fertilizer usage.
2. LAND ROTATION SYSTEM OF FARM CULTIVATION
This is a modified system of shifting cultivation or bush fallowing.
The system involves dividing an available farmland into portions mostly practice as land tenure system. The farmer (then) farms on one portion for some time before moving to the next portion, in a definite order. This illustrated below:
Land Rotation system of farm cultivation.
The system is practiced in areas where farmlands are limited and where food crops are mainly grown.
Advantages of land rotation system of farm cultivation
1 . it helps to main the fertility of the soil.
3. It reduces soil erosion.
1. The system does not encourage production of permanent crops such as cocoa
2. Diseases and pests can spread easily from old plot tn new .
3. PASTORAL FARMING SYSTEM OF FARM CULTIVATION
(A)RANCHING FARMING SYSTEM
This is a system of keeping animals in a fenced expanse of land containing forages (grasses and legumes) for them to feed on.
Examples are Obudu cattle ranch, in Cross River State, Igarra cattle ranch in Edo State.
(B) NOMADIC HERDING FARMING SYSTEM
This involves the movement of grazing animals from one place to another in search of fresh pasture and ‘ water. This is mainly practiced by the Fulani nomads of northern Nigeria.
This system is also called pastoral nomadism or pastoral farming.
i. It provides a source of animal protein.
ii. The system is not too costly because natural grasses are fed upon by the animals.
iii. Less labour is required as;one man can cater for a large number of animals.
i. It is highly laborious for the herdsmen particularly the nomads.
ii. Animals can only be reared in grassland areas where they can have access to feed.
iii. The productivity of the animals is affected by availability of pasture crops. The latter is affected by seasonal changes.
4. MIXED FARMING SYSTEM OF FARM CULTIVATION
This is the combination of crop production with animal production on the same farmland. This is mainly practiced on commercial farms where large units of livestock such as poultry, pigs, etc. are kept along side the cultivation of crops like maize, rice, and vegetables.
1. It ensures steady supply of income for the farmer.
2. It ensures against failure in one of the two enterprises (that is, crop production and animal production.
4. The farmer can also supply feeds to the animals from the crop products.
5. The farmer and his family have access to good food obtained from both his crops and animals.
6. The animals may serve as source of power on the farm, e.g bullock can be used to pull ploughs or harrows.
1. It requires a great deal of knowledge, skill, time and labour from the farmer.
2. When animals are reared on the same land where crops grown without fence, the animals may damage the crops.
3. It is expensive to operate – especially in respect of the skill personnel needed.
5. LEY FARMING
This system of farming is not so common in our communities except in experimental stations.
It involves alternating arable or production with the growing of forage crops on a piece of land, instance, a farmer may use a piece of land to grow food crops about two years and then use it for growing forage crops to animals for some other years. The land is re-ploughed and planted with food crops again.
The farm land is referred to as ‘ley’ during the period it is covered with forages.
1. The pastures, especially the legume species help to replenish the soil fertility.
2. Soil erosion is controlled through the system because at no point in time is the land exposed completely for too long a time
3. It also helps to reduce the build-up of pests and disease agents on a farmland.
It is not easy to practice, hence the system is not popular in most communities. ‘flu1l forage crops usually become weeds on the farm when the farm is cropped with food crops and they are often difficult to triplicate.
6. TAUNGYA FARMING
This is the system whereby food crops are grown alongside trees.
It involves clearing forest land (forest reserve). and food crops. Later, tree seedlings are planted in between crops to continue on the land after the food crops have been harvested.
1. The fertility of the soil is usually high for crops to use for maximum productivity.
2. It is an economic way of replacing unwanted forest with desirable tree species.
3. The land is always protected against erosion.
4. The timber seedlings are protected by the food crops in their early stage of life.
5. The system provides a source of income to the government.
1. It leads to destruction of natural forests which may result in the loss of many forest resources.
2. At times, the needed forests may not develop because most farmers do not cater for the forest trees as they are left to die under heavy cropping with cassava or plantains.
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