ENERGY TRANSFORMATION IN THE ECOSYSTEM

ENERGY TRANSFORMATION IN THE ECOSYSTEM

Energy exists in various forms
. These forms of energy are inter-convertible. They can be transformed from one form to another form.

energy transfer and transformation
energy transformation in an ecosystem

TERMS associated with energy transfer in the ecosystem

Biomass— Total weight, volume, or energy equivalent of all living organisms within a given area.

Ecological efficiency— Energy changes from one trophic level to the next.

First law of thermodynamics— Energy can be transformed but it cannot be created nor can it be destroyed.

Primary consumer— An organism that eats primary producers.

Primary producer— An organism that photosynthesizes.

energy transfer or transformation in the ecosystem

The vast majority of energy that exists in food webs originates from the sun and is converted (transformed) into chemical energy by the process of photosynthesis in plants. … At each stage of a food chain, most of the chemical energy is converted to other forms such as heat, and does not remain within the ecosystem.

Energy transformation is governed by the laws of thermodynamics

In nature, energy transformation is brought about by living organisms. Their activities cause energy to flow through the ecosystem.

The sun is the ultimate and eternal source of energy for ecosystem on earth.

ENERGY FLOW IN AN ECOSYSTEM

Energy flow in the ecosystem is unidirectional/non-cyclic: which is, it is either stored or utilized. The light energy of the sun is absorbed by chlorophyll in green plants which is then used to produce carbohydrates. The chemical energy in the carbohydrate in then passed on to the food chain. When the primary consumer feeds on the plants and grasses/producers, the chemical energy is then passed along the food chain to the secondary consumer and then to the tertiary consumer/decomposer

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WEED AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION

18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. <ahref=”https: www.apsnet.org=”” edcenter=”” disandpath=”” fungalbasidio=”” pdlessons=”” pages=”” coffeerust.aspx”=””>COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON</ahref=”https:>

89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION

147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES

154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

What is energy loss in the ecosystem?

Energy is lost at each tropic level. For example, when herbivores, which are primary consumers feeds on a plant/producer, not all part of the plant is eaten. As a result not all energy in the plant-producer is consumed.

Plants lose energy during respiration and they do not utilize all the energy in preceding members.

Energy is also lost in respiration, excretion, movement and other metabolic activities.
In ecosystem, energy is lost in the following ways. Through

energy transformation in an ecosystem
energy transfer

1. Vegetation
2. Soil
3. Air
4. Heat
5. Evaporation
6. Effects of
Depending on the type of vegetation and climatic factors, only 1-10% of the solar energy may be available to photosynthetic producers in most ecosystems.

WHAT IS THE LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS?

Thermodynamics ordinarily means heat changes. Heat is a form of energy and it can be changed or converted from one form to another form is governed by two laws.
These laws are called the first and second laws of thermodynamics

FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS IN ENERGY TRANSFORMATION

The first law of thermodynamics states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed.
What this laws simply means is that you cannot create or destroy energy but you can convert it to another form of energy

SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS IN ENERGY TRANSFORMATION

The second law of thermodynamics states that in any conversion of energy from one form to another form, there is always a decrease in the amount of useful energy. It simply means that there is no 100% complete transformation of energy from one form to another

The application of the laws of thermodynamics to ecological phenomena or events

Every ecological event or phenomena can explained using the laws of thermodynamics.
EXPLAIN FOOD CHAIN USING THE LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS
Energy conversion or transfer in the food chain can be explain in the following ways

1.

Using the first law of thermodynamics to explain food chain in energy transformation :

In this portal, energy is generated through the sun and is transferred from the producer to the final consumer. The green plant transfers the energy to the primary consumers, which again transfers the energy to the secondary consumers. In all of the energy transfer, the energy from the sun remains constant

2.

Using the second law of thermodynamics to explain food chain:

While the energy is transferred to the next tropic level, part of it is lost as heat.
In other words, as the energy is transferred from the producer to the primary consumers, to secondary consumers, and then to the tertiary consumers, energy is lost as heat in each tropic level
It is then evident that there is no 100% energy transfer from one form or the other that there will not be energy loss

USING THE LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS TO EXPLAIN PYRAMID OF ENERGY

1. Using the first law of thermodynamics to explain pyramid of energy:
In this, it is discovered that energy is transferred from one tropic level to another. The energy of the producer at the base of the pyramid is always higher and is transformed gradually from one stage of the tropic level to another. Even though the energy is transformed from one tropic level to the next successive level, the sum of the energy is still constant

2.

Using the second law of thermodynamics to explain pyramid of energy:

Here as the energy is transformed from tropic level to another, part of it is converted into heat which is lost, causing a progressive drop in successive tropic level

USING THE THERMODYNAMICS LAWS TO EXPLAIN THE FLOW OF ENERGY

1. Using the first law:
This states that as the producers converts the solar energy to useful energy, this energy is progressively transformed from one tropic level to the next.
It is important to note that the energy flow in a food chain is in one direction only

2.

Using the second law of thermodynamics to explain energy flow in an ecosystem:

Here the transfer of energy from one tropic level to another is not 100%. This means that energy is or cannot be completely transferred. This is to say that energy available for use by the next level or organism in the food chain starting from the producers is always on the reducing end till it gets to the tertiary consumers

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