cultivation of OIL PALM (Elaeis guineensis. The oil palm tree belongs to the plant family called palmea or palm family. On a commercial basis, both the oil and the kernel are important. The oil is obtained from the mesocarp and the kernel from the endocarp. The fruit is called a drupe. Oil palm is an oil crop.
Oil palm is a tropical plant species that is widely cultivated for its oil-rich fruit, which is used in a variety of food and non-food products. The oil palm is native to West Africa, but it is now grown extensively in Southeast Asia, Latin America, and Africa.
The oil extracted from the fruit of the oil palm is high in saturated fats and is used in the production of a variety of food products, including cooking oils, margarine, and baked goods. It is also used in non-food products such as soap, cosmetics, and biodiesel fuel.
The cultivation of oil palm has become a controversial issue in recent years, due to its impact on the environment and human rights. Oil palm plantations have been associated with deforestation, habitat destruction, and greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, there have been concerns about the exploitation of workers and the displacement of indigenous communities in areas where oil palm is grown.
Efforts are being made to address these concerns through the development of sustainable oil palm production practices. The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) was established in 2004 to promote the growth and use of sustainable oil palm products. The RSPO sets standards for the production and certification of sustainable palm oil, which includes measures to protect the environment, ensure the rights and welfare of workers, and support local communities.
In addition to the RSPO, there are other initiatives aimed at promoting sustainable oil palm production, such as the Palm Oil Innovation Group (POIG) and the High Carbon Stock Approach (HCSA). These initiatives aim to address the environmental and social issues associated with oil palm production, while also promoting economic development and poverty reduction in the communities where oil palm is grown.
While there are challenges associated with oil palm production, it is important to recognize that the demand for palm oil is likely to continue to grow in the coming years. As such, efforts to promote sustainable oil palm production practices are essential to ensure that the environmental and social impacts of this industry are minimized, and that the benefits of this crop can be realized in a responsible and equitable manner.
Land preparation for oil palm cultivation
land is cleared and hoe is used to make heaps or ridges. Flat land can be used for growing oil palm. Land can also be prepared mechanically by ploughing, harrowing and ridging methods.
Varieties /Cultivars of oil palm
: Dura, pisifera and Tenera
(i) Dura: This variety has a thin mesocarp, thick endocarp (shell) with a large kernel. It is genetically homozygous and represented by DD.
(ii) Pisifera: This variety has a thick mesocarp (i.e. it contains very little oil content), an absence of endocarp (no shell) with a small kernel. It is genetically homozygous and recessive for the shell. It is represented by DD.
(iii) Tenera: This variety has a thick mesocarp and thin endocarp with a moderate-sized kernel. It is a cross between Dura and pisifera. It is capable of producing by DD. Heterozygous and it is represented by DD.
Climatic and soil requirements: palm requires a temperature of 18 – 27, rainfall of 150cm – 200cm per annum, a deep loamy soil, rich in organic matter, and slightly acidic soil of pH4.5 – 6.
Method of oil palm Propagation
By seeds. this is to say that the only or main method of cultivating palm is through the seed. in most cases, the oil palm is propagated using the nursery method.
Planting Dates of oil palm :
during the cultivation of palm, the following planting date should be observed
(i) Pre-nursery: August – October (ii) Nursery: 9 months later (iii) Field: March – May (a year after)
it is also very important to note Seed rate during the cultivation or planting process of oil palm:
it is therefore appropriate to plant the following amount of oil palm seed 120 – 150 seeds/ha
process of Germination of oil palm seeds
Seeds are soaked in water for seven days, the water being changed daily. After seven days, the seeds are placed in the shade for 24hours to dry before being bagged (500 per bag) in polythene bags. They are then sent to the germinator which has a temperature of 29oc (102oF) for 80days.
Soaking then begins again changed daily. The seeds are then dried under shade for two hours before being sent to the cooling house. After about weeks, germination begins. This method produces a germination 0f 85 – 90%.
Pre-nursery Operations for oil palm
(i) Seed boxes or trays are filled with top soil, rich in humus
(ii) The seeds are sown at a spacing of 7.0cm by 7.0cm.
(iii) Shades are provided
(iv) Watering is done in the morning and evening
(v) Mulching should be done
(vi) Pre-nursery lasts for hi iv months before they are transferred to the nursery.
Nursery Operations for oil palm production
(i) It requires a level, of well-drained, loamy soil.
(ii) The nursery is ploughed and harrowed or polythene bags are used
(iii) Planting is done early April during which the seedlings are removed with a ball of earth
(iv) Spacing of 60cm by 60cm is required.
(v) Watering, weeding and mulching are done.
techniques for Transplanting oil palm seedling
(i) It is done after one year of seedlings in the nursery (April – May)
(ii) It is done with a ball of earth on the roots
(iii) A spacing of 9m by 9m in triangular form is required in a hole of 4.5cm deep on the field.
(iv) The roots are trimmed to encourage the development of new ones
Cultural Practices for oil palm cultivation
(1) Weeding: This should be done regularly, using cutlass or herbicides, e.g., Gramoxone.
(ii) Fertilizer Application: Apply N.P.K. 15:15:15 fertilizer at the rate of 800kg/ha.
(iii) Cover Crops: This should be evaporation and to add nutrients.
(iv) Pruning: This should be done regularly.
Maturity Period for oil palm
This is between three to seven years.
Harvesting of oil palm
: Mature bunches art. Harvested when the fruits are red or dark red in colour. The bunch is harvested will a cutlass or harvesting knife.
Oil palm Processing methods
palm fruit can be processed in two ways:
(i) Traditional method: The fruits. are boiled after which they are pounded in, a mortar. The fibres and nuts are removed and the oil is separated from the residue by floatation, after mixing with water. The crude liquid is reboiled and the oil is carefully separated. The oil is later reheated to eliminate any trace of water.
(ii) Modern method: This involves. The extraction of oil with machines. The boiled fruits are macerated to separate the oil from the fibre and the kernel. Hand- screw press or the hand-hydraulic press is used to press the mixture. The oil is cleansed by allowing the mixture to settle and then boiled after the sludge and water have been removed. The oil is reheated to remove arty traces if water storage. The oil is stored in aluminium or large plastic containers, drum, tankers tins or bottles while the kernels are cracked, dried and stored either for local consumption or for export.
Grades of Palm oil
Palm oil is graded into three major categories based on the quantity of free fatty acids (FFA) present in the oil. The three major grades are:
(i) Soft oil – It has low free fatty acid (FFA)
(ii) Hard oil – It has high free fatty acid (FFA)
(iii) Special oil – It has very low free fatty acid (FFA)
this is an excerpt from a research institute for oil palm in Nigeria.
Breeding Programme and Progeny Trials: The Institute breeding programme was first articulated in 1957/58 based on the modified reciprocal recurrent selection procedure. From the results of progeny trials high-grade Extension Work Seeds (EWS) were produced from tested dura mother palms, which gave good true-to-type tenera hybrid progenies in crosses with pisifera pollen palms. READ MORE HERE
Pests of Oil Palm and control methods
(i) Rodents: Rodents like rats, and squirrels. Bush rats dig up and eat the seeds in the pre-nursery stage.
Control: Use wire mesh to surround the nursery beds. read more about animal pests here
Diseases of Oil Palm and control methods
1. Blast Disease:
It is caused by a fungus which is spread within the soil. Symptoms: include yellow-coloured leaves with some brown patches cm the leaves of seedlings in the nursery. It may lead to the death of the seedlings.
(i) Regular watering and mulching of the Nursery beds.
(ii) Spray at regular intervals with captan.
(2) Anthracnose: It is also caused by a fungus.
Symptoms: of the disease include black I brown Patches on the surfaces of leaves in pre-nursery.
(i) Ensure adequate spacing within the pre-nursery.
(ii) Spray with Captan or Perenox.
(3) Freckle disease: It is caused by a fungus which can be spread by wind or air. It may develop in pre-nursery and later spread to the nursery and the field when it is controlled.
Affected plants develop brown spots on the leaves
how to Control diseases of oil palm
(i) Remove infected plant
(ii) Spray with captan
(1) Galadima disease: It is caused by a bacterium which is spread within the soil.
Symptoms include rapid wilting and death of the entire plant.
(i) Avoid infested soil
(ii) Practice crop rotation, especially in pre-nursery and nursery stages.
important processes of oil palm production
1. Crude Palm Kernel Oil: A light yellow crude oil, extracted from palm kernels, containing mainly lauric
2. Facilitator/Facilitation: An action or individual (or group of individuals) that temporarily works to develop
more inclusive, dynamic, and differentiated markets without becoming a part of the markets.
3. Food Security: Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to
sufficient safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and
4. Market: A set of arrangements by which buyers and sellers are in contact to exchange goods or services;
the interaction of demand and supply.
5. Market System: The multi-player, multi-function arrangement comprising three main sets of functions
(core, rules and supporting) undertaken by different players (private sector, government, representative
organizations, civil society, etc) through which exchange takes place, develops, adapts and grows. A
construct through which both conventionally defined markets and basic services can be viewed.
Olein: Also referred to as Palm Olein is the light yellow edible oil obtained from the fractionation of
Refined Bleached and Deodorized Palm Oil, which is separated in two fractions by partial crystallization.
The liquid fraction is called Palm Olein.
6. Out-growers: A group of farmers supported with seedlings and other inputs (out-growers‟ scheme is
usually initiated mainly by government or sometimes by other non-state stakeholders) to encourage the
cultivation of oil palm as increase production of oil palm products.
7. Special Palm Oil (SPO): Premium grade palm oil with less than 5% free fatty acid (FFA) content,
extracted from the mesocarp of palm fruits.
6. Stearin: Also referred to as Palm Stearin is the solid fraction obtained from the fractionation of Refined
Bleached and Deodorized Palm Oil. It is mainly used by the food industry.
Technical Palm Oil (TPO): Palm oil with greater than 5% free fatty acid (FFA)
9. Transaction Costs: The costs associated with the basic process of exchange including costs concerned
with searching, screening, negotiating, contracting, monitoring and enforcing transactions.
Upgrading: In order to respond effectively to market opportunities, upgrading is the process by which
business owners innovate to add value to products or services and to make production and marketing
processes more efficiently.
Value Addition: The enhancement added to a product or service by a company before the product is
offered to customers.
Value Chain Governance: The relationships among the buyers, sellers, service providers and regulatory
institutions that operate within or influence the range of activities required to bring a product or service
from inception to its end use
a brief history of oil palm production in Nigeria
Economic growth and prosperity are central to long-term poverty alleviation for social and environmental
sustainability. The palm industry represents one of the most effective avenues for poverty alleviation,
food security and ensuring economic stability in Nigeria. The oil industry has the prospect of providing
employment for millions of unskilled and semi-skilled people. As demonstrated in other economies with
a proper focus on the production of commodities of large-scale commercial values, improvement in the
production of oil palm can effectively mitigate the poverty level in Nigeria and especially in the Niger Delta
region (PIND, 2011). The Scoping Study was designed to include consideration of any Appropriate
Technology Enabled Development (ATED) potential.
The oil palm, a very versatile crop and nature’s gift to the tropics has from colonial times played a
significant role in the socio-economic development of Nigeria. In 2010, Malaysia and Indonesia produced
87% of the world’s supply, eclipsing the next largest producer, Thailand, at 3%. Nigeria, until the 1960s
was the largest producer of palm oil, now is only 2% of the world’s supply. Although Nigeria is currently
the 4th largest producer of the commodity, the bulk of its oil palm still comes from the groves or smallholder plantations rather than the industrial plantations.
Nigeria is thought to have less than 600,000ha of cultivated plantations distributed among the smallholders and industrial estates. Production from these systems cannot match those from the over 4.9
million ha of cultivated small, medium and large estate holdings in Malaysia or from the over 7.5 million
ha from Indonesia, both of which account for nearly 90% of global production of the commodity. The
potential land available for Oil Palm development in Nigeria is estimated to be 24 million hectares (Omoti,
palm oil products
Palm products refer to the wide range of products derived from the oil palm tree. The oil palm tree produces two types of oil: palm oil, which is derived from the flesh of the fruit, and palm kernel oil, which is derived from the kernel inside the fruit. These oils are used in a variety of food and non-food products.
Food products derived from palm oil include cooking oil, margarine, and shortening, as well as a wide range of processed foods, such as baked goods, confectionery, and snack foods. Palm oil is also used as a feedstock for biodiesel production, as it is a high-yielding and low-cost source of renewable energy.
Non-food products derived from palm oil include soap, detergent, and personal care products such as shampoo and lotion. Palm kernel oil is used in the production of non-food products such as soap, cosmetics, and industrial lubricants.
In addition to the oils, other palm products include palm kernel cake, which is a byproduct of palm kernel oil extraction and is used as animal feed, and palm fronds and trunks, which are used in construction, furniture, and basket weaving.
The palm oil industry has been criticized for its impact on the environment, including deforestation, habitat destruction, and greenhouse gas emissions. However, efforts are being made to promote sustainable palm oil production practices, such as the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) and the Palm Oil Innovation Group (POIG), which aim to promote environmentally and socially responsible palm oil production practices.
Overall, palm products are widely used in a variety of industries and products, and are an important source of economic livelihood for many communities around the world. It is important to promote sustainable palm oil production practices to ensure that the social and environmental impacts of this industry are minimized, while still allowing for the economic benefits of this crop to be realized.
- loans for businesses
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- loans for businesses
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- price equilibrium
- scale of preference
- concept of economics
- economic tools for nation building
There are several types of organic manure, each with its own unique set of properties and benefits. Here are some of the most common types of organic manure:
- Animal manure: This is one of the most common types of organic manure and is derived from animal waste such as cow dung, poultry droppings, and horse manure. Animal manure is rich in nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, making it an excellent source of plant nutrients.
- Compost: Compost is a type of organic manure that is made by decomposing organic matter such as plant residue, kitchen waste, and yard waste. Compost is rich in organic matter and nutrients and is an excellent soil amendment that improves soil structure and fertility.
- Green manure: Green manure is made by growing crops that are specifically grown to be turned under and used as a soil amendment. Common green manure crops include clover, alfalfa, and soybeans. Green manure helps to improve soil structure, adds organic matter to the soil, and can fix nitrogen from the atmosphere.
- Vermicompost: Vermicompost is made by feeding organic waste to earthworms. The earthworms break down the waste and produce a nutrient-rich soil amendment that is high in nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Vermicompost is an excellent soil amendment that improves soil structure, fertility, and water retention.
- Biogas slurry: Biogas slurry is a byproduct of the biogas production process. It is made by digesting organic waste in a biogas plant, and the resulting slurry is rich in nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Biogas slurry is an excellent soil amendment that can improve soil fertility and reduce the use of chemical fertilizers.
In conclusion, there are several types of organic manure, each with its own unique set of properties and benefits. By using organic manure in place of chemical fertilizers, you can improve soil health and promote sustainable agriculture.
In the world of technology and innovation, the term \”under development\” is often used to describe software, hardware, or even processes that are still being developed. These projects are not yet fully completed, and may still be subject to changes, improvements, and bug fixes. This article will explore the concept of \”under development\” and its significance in various fields, including software development, product design, and engineering.
What is \”Under Development\”?
The term \”under development\” refers to any product, process, or project that is still being developed. This means that it is not yet complete, and there may be many changes, improvements, and bug fixes that need to be made before it can be considered finished. In the software development industry, this term is often used to describe software that is still in the testing phase, or that is still being developed and is not yet ready for release.
The Importance of Under Development:
The concept of \”under development\” is important for several reasons. Firstly, it allows developers and designers to create products that are constantly improving and adapting to the needs of their users. By releasing products that are still under development, companies can receive feedback from their users and make changes accordingly.
Secondly, the concept of under development also allows for greater innovation and experimentation. By releasing products that are not yet complete, designers and developers can try out new features, designs, and technologies without having to commit to a final version. This can lead to more creativity and better products in the long run.
Finally, under development products can also help companies to stay ahead of the competition. By releasing products that are still being developed, companies can keep their users engaged and interested in their brand. This can help to build brand loyalty and keep customers coming back for more.
Software Development and Under Development:
In the software development industry, the concept of \”under development\” is especially important. Software development is a complex process that involves many different stages, from planning and design to testing and deployment. At each stage of the development process, there are many potential issues and problems that can arise. This is why the concept of under development is so important.
During the development process, software developers create versions of their software that are still in the testing phase. These versions are often called \”beta\” versions or \”release candidates.\” These versions are released to a limited group of users who are willing to test the software and provide feedback.
The feedback provided by beta testers is crucial for software developers. It allows them to identify and fix any bugs or issues that may have been missed during the development process. This feedback can also be used to make improvements and changes to the software before it is released to the public.
Product Design and Under Development:
The concept of \”under development\” is also important in product design. When designing a new product, designers may create prototypes that are still in the testing phase. These prototypes are often used to gather feedback from users and make changes before the final product is released.
Prototyping is a crucial part of product design. It allows designers to try out different features and designs before committing to a final version. This can save time and money in the long run, as it allows designers to identify and fix any issues early on in the design process.
Engineering and Under Development:
In the field of engineering, the concept of under development is also important. Engineers often create prototypes and test models that are still in the testing phase. These prototypes and test models are used to gather data and make improvements to the final product.
Engineering is a complex field that involves many different stages of development. From planning and design to testing and deployment, there are many potential issues and problems that can arise. This is why the concept of under development is so important.
During the development process, engineers create prototypes and test models that are used to