Meaning: Brain drain; also called Human Capital Flight may be defined as the departure or emigration of individuals with technical skills or knowledge from organizations, industries, or geographical region to another. In other words, human capital flight is the loss of talented or trained persons from a country that invested in them to another country which benefits from their arrival without investing in them.


Brain drain can also be describe as the large-scale emigration of people with technical skills to foreign countries owing to lack of opportunities in their own country.

Brain drain is common among developing nations, such as the former colonies of Africa, the Island Nations of the Caribbean, and particularly in centralized economies such as former East Germany, and the Soviet Union, Recently, its been documented that China has been leading the world in Brain Drain.

Types of Brain Drain

  1. Organizational Brain Drain: This is the movement or flight of talented, creative and highly trained employees from one large organization or corporation to another.
  2. Geographical Brain Drain: This is the movement or flight of highly trained individuals from one region or country to another region or country e.g the movement of a Doctor from Nigeria to the United States of America.
  3. Industrial Brain Drain: This is the movement of traditional skilled workers from one sector of industry to another.


As with other human migration, the reasons for brain drain or human capital flight include the following:

  1. Social environment: Poor working conditions in a country may force talented individual to move to another country where there are better working conditions.
  2. Poor opportunities: Lack of opportunities in a country may force talented workers to countries where there are rich opportunities.
  3. Political instability: Political instability e.g war may force trained personnel to move to another country that have political stability and freedom.
  • Undeveloped economy: Undeveloped economy may also force talented individuals to move to another country where the economy is highly developed.
  • Better living condition: Poor living conditions in a country that lack electricity, pipe borne water, good roads accommodation, etc may also for individuals to move to other countries that have better living conditions.

  • Family influence: Families al influence the flight of trained individual to migrate to developed countries specially when the relatives stay overseas.
  • Personal preference: Individuals decide on his own to migrate to o countries on person reasons.
  • Preference for exploration: Individuals may decide to migrate another country for the sake exploration of the known or unknown
  1. loans for businesses
  2. how to establish enterprises
  3. what is a firm
  4. price equilibrium
  5. scale of preference
  6. concept of economics
  7. economic tools for nation building
  8. budgeting
  9. factors affecting the expansion of industries
  10. mineral resources and the mining industries
  11. demand and supply
  12. types of demand curve and used
  13. advertising industry

  • Ambition for an improved career: Some talented individuals may d to move to another country for ambition of pursuing a special career themselves.

Categories of People Affected By Brain Drain: The following profession and people mostly affected by brain drain syndrome:

Those in medical field

  1. The academics
  2. Sport men and women
  3. The engineers
  4. Creative artists
  5. Inventors and industrialists

How To solve Brain Drain problem

 Brain drain is taking place at a very fast rate in developing countries; Nigeria being no exception. People get disenchanted with low rewards available for their qualifications and experience, which compels them to migrate to developed countries in search of greener pastures. If we want to arrest brain drain the following should be done:

Provision of better job opportunities: Better job opportunities have to be provided irrespective of caste, tribe, belief, race or nationality.

Promotion on merit: People have to be promoted purely on merit and avoid the use of sentiments or tribe etc to promote people in their place of work.

Provision of attractive salaries: Government should provide attractive salaries to highly qualified people on the basis of their qualifications and experience.

Improve on the universities: There should be proper improvement on the quality of our universities and bring them at par with other universities in Europe and America.

Provision of adequate research facilities: Research facilities which should be adequate must be provided in all universities to enable them do research works and prevent them from migrating to other countries that have these facilities.

Abolition of quota system: The use of quota system to provide jobs should be abolish so that the best have the jobs.

Improvement on power supply: The country is having constant poor power supply.

Eradicate tribalism, nepotism, corruption: All sentiments must be discarded.

Protect the lives of your citizens: The country is not safe with Boko Haram activities and kidnapping everywhere.

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