POVERTY Meaning of poverty and solutions to poverty: Poverty is an abstract word which can be associated with many things. However, poverty is often used in conjunction with material possessions that belong to people. So the word poverty means a lack of material possessions belonging to a person.
However, poverty can also be measured in terms of material goods. In terms of material goods, poverty often equates to a lack of some of the most basic and important material goods such as shelter, clothing, gender equality, health facilities, education, jobs and increases in diseases and sickness.
EFFECTS OF POVERTY
Pover-ty can lead a person to experience the following properties of poverty.
Some of the properties of poverty include:
- Lack of sanitation and water
- Gender inequality
- Poor health care
- Low education
- Low level of infrastructure e.g transport, utilities, energy and finance
- Poor maternal and child health
- Low environmental care
- Low life expectancy
- Low wages
- Street children
- Social exclusion
- Domestic violence
- Increased vulnerability to natural disasters
- Low literacy
- Large family size
METHODS OF POVERTY ALLEVIATION AND ERADICATION
The idea of solution for poor living standard is to find solutions where the poor can work their own way out of poverty. The idea now is to find ways of reversing the effects of links in the chain so that the cycle can begin to work in a different way.
The list of interventions below is examples of a few interventions which have fairly diverse effects:
- Applying appropriate combinations of mineral fertilizers, using green manures to improve soil fertility, planting fertilizer trees, returning crop residues to the soil, using improved measures of soil erosion control and water conversion and using nitrogen fixing seeds can improve soil health which can improve farming productivity. This leads to more nutritious food in farmers’ markets which leads to more mothers and children who are nutritious which leads to better health, meaning more employment, more income per capita and more to invest in farming.
Improved water, sanitation, feeder and main roads, alternative energy sources such as kerosene and LPG for cooking, rural electrification all empower women by allowing them spend less time doing basic chores such as fetching wood and water. Improved gender equality does a whole host of things such as increases women’s chances of jobs which leads to more gender equality which may lead to women having the power to create better water, sanitation and energy sources at home.
It increases access to reproductive health care, which strengthens maternal and child health. It encourages better birth spacing and more income per capital through population control.
It encourages children to be educated at school, and encourages mother to help them with education such as teaching them how to read. It encourages improved nutrition as mothers are able to take control in deciding how to feed children.
- Nutritious school meals, farming improvements clean water sanitation, hygiene, education and nutrition education can all lead to improved nutrition. Improved nutrition leads to improved health in general and accounts for maybe 50% of all illness worldwide. People who are healthier are able to work for longer hours. This means less unemployment and more income pre capita which means more ability to provide nutritious school meals, clean water and sanitation.
AGENCIES FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION
NAPEP: National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) is a 2001 program by the Nigerian government aimed at poverty reduction, in particular, reduction of absolute poverty. It was designed to replace the Poverties Alleviation program. NAPEP and NAPEC coordinate and oversee various other institutions, including ministries and develop plans and guidelines for them to follow with regards to poverty reduction. NAPEP goals include training youths in vocational trades, to support internship, to support micro-credit, create employment in the automobile industry, and help VVF patients.
The program is seen as an improvement over the previous Nigerian government poverty reduction programmes, according to a 2008 analysis, the program has been able to train 130,000 youths and engaged 216,000 persons but most of the beneficiaries were non poor. In a bid to overcome poverty in Nigeria, government has initiated different policies and structural programmes between 1977 till date.
These programmes include: Directorate of Food, Road and Rural Infrastructure (DFFRI), Better Life programme (BLP), National Directorate of Employment (NDE), People Bank of Nigeria (PBN), Community Bank (CB), Family Support programme(FSP),Family Economic Advancement Programme (FEAP), Poverty Eradication Programme (PEP) National Poverty Eradiction programme (NAPEP), and National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy (NEEDS). Their aims are to meliorate the suffering of the people by providing them employment opportunities and access to credit facilities to enable them establish their own businesses.