In the establishment of pasture, it is very important to know the quality of pasture or forage crop to plant in a specified area of land.
In doing this, it is very important to understand certain principles and formula required to ensure an adequate plant population in an area of farmland
PASTURE AND FORAGE CROPS
MEANING AND USES OF PASTURE AND FORAGE CROPS
Pasture is a piece of land on which forage crops or grasses or mixture of grasses and legumes grow. In other words, it refers to an area of land covered with plants which are usually grasses and legumes that are grazed or fed on by livestock such as cattle, sheep and goats.
|lists of forage plant|
Forage crops and pastures provide the bedrock to sustainable agriculture. there are also lots of differences between forages and pasture. don’t worry it is not very confusing but let us look at the major differences between pasture range land and forage. what is pasture range land?a pasture or a pasture land is
Defined as the edible parts of plants, other than separated grain, that provide feed for grazing animals or that can be harvested for feeding
Uses of forage crops:
Forage crops have the following uses:
(i) Livestock feed: Forage crops are usually used for feeding livestock like cattle, sheep and goat. Hay, straw and silage are prepared from forage crops.
(ii) As cover crops: Most forage crops, especially leguminous plants, serve as cover crops which add nutrients to soil and control weed growth.
(iii) Conservation of Soil Moisture: Most forage crops, especially leguminous plants, help to conserve soil moisture by preventing evaporation.
(iv) Prevention of Erosion: Some forage crops, especially leguminous plants, help to prevent water and wind erosion.
(v) As Green Manure Forage crops, especially when they are young could be ploughed into the soil as green manure.
(vi) For Roofing Farmsteads: Some forage crops like guinea grass and elephant grass are usually used for roofing farmsteads as a result of their strong stems and plenty leaves.
(vii) As Bedding Materials: Most forage crops serve as bedding materials for animals.
pasture and forage crops in Nigeria
- Andropogon hallii – sand bluestem
- Arrhenatherum elatius – false oat-grass
- Bothriochloa bladhii – Australian bluestem
- Bothriochloa pertusa – hurricane grass
- Brachiaria decumbens – Surinam grass
- Brachiaria humidicola – koronivia grass
- Bromus spp. – bromegrasses
- Cenchrus ciliaris – buffelgrass
- Chloris gayana – Rhodes grass
- Cynodon dactylon – bermudagrass
- Dactylis glomerata – orchard grass
- Echinochloa pyramidalis – antelope grass
- Entolasia imbricata – bungoma grass
- Festuca spp. – fescues
- Festuca arundinacea – tall fescue
- Festuca pratensis – meadow fescue
- Festuca rubra – red fescue
- Heteropogon contortus – black spear grass
- Hymenachne amplexicaulis – West Indian marsh grass
- Hyparrhenia rufa – jaragua
- Leersia hexandra – southern cutgrass
- Lolium spp. – ryegrasses
- Lolium multiflorum – Italian ryegrass
- Lolium perenne – perennial ryegrass
- Megathyrsus maximus – Guinea grass
- Melinis minutiflora – molasses grass
- Paspalum conjugatum – carabao grass
- Paspalum dilatatum – dallisgrass
- Phalaris arundinacea – reed canarygrass
- Phleum pratense – timothy
- Poa spp. – bluegrasses, meadow-grasses
- Poa arachnifera – Texas bluegrass
- Poa pratensis – Kentucky bluegrass
- Poa trivialis – rough bluegrass
- Setaria sphacelata – African bristlegrass
- Themeda triandra – kangaroo grass
- Thinopyrum intermedium – intermediate wheatgrass
Types of pastures
These are two main types of pastures. These are:
Natural pasture is also referred to as natural grassland or range-land. In this pasture, grasses and legumes grow naturally on their own and are fed upon by farm animals, i.e, grasses are not planted by farmers. Examples of natural grassland are the savanna areas of Nigeria
Characteristics or Features of Natural Pasture
Disadvantages of natural forages and pastures
(i) Natural pasture or grassland contains poor quality grasses and legumes.
(ii) It contains soil types that are low in fertility or nutrients.
(i) It contains wide varieties of grasses and legumes, some of which may not be eaten by livestock.
(iv) It has good regenerative ability.
(v) Productivity of natural pasture is very low and resistant to drought.
(vi) Forage crops in rural pasture cart withstand trampling by farm animals.
(vii) Natural pasture may contain some grasses which cannot he easily eradicated.
(viii) New growth is stimulated by burning.
Benefits of Artificial Pasture and forages
This is also referred to as established or sown pasture. In this pasture, grasses and legumes are deliberately planted and managed by man to be fed on by livestock.
Characteristics or Features of Artificial Pasture:
(i) It contains high quality grasses and legumes.
(ii) It contains no weeds except some shade trees.
(iii) Selected grasses and legumes are grown in adequate proportion.
(iv) It has high regenerative ability a being fed on by animals.
(v) It can withstand trampling by far animals.
(vi) It is properly managed for productivity of the forage crops e.g. fertilization, irrigation and rotational grazing.
Qualities of a Good forage plant
A good pasture plant must have the following qualities:
(1) Ability 40 regenerate fast after being browsed
(2) Ability to withstand trampling effect of the grazing
(3) A good pasture plant must be highly palatable.
(4) a good pasture and forage crops must possess high value of nutrients
a good pasture and forage crops has
Ability to withstand extremes of climatic conditions
(6) It should have moderate moisture content or succulent
(7) It must have a high leaf to stem ratio
FACTORS AFFECTING THE PRODUCTIVITY OF FORAGES AND PASTURE
These factors include:
(1) Persistence: This is the ability of the pasture crops to survive and spread by vegetative means.
(2) Aggressiveness of forage: This is the ability of pasture to compete favourably with other weeds. High aggressiveness of forages ensures continuous availability of the pasture crops.
WEED AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
16. CROP ROTATION
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. <ahref=”https: www.apsnet.org=”” edcenter=”” disandpath=”” fungalbasidio=”” pdlessons=”” pages=”” coffeerust.aspx”=””>COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM
77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
115. MAMMARY GLAND
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM
PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION
127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
133. PROTEIN FATS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
(3) Resistance to Trampling by forage crops: This refers to the ability of pasture to resist continuous trampling by farm animals during grazing and still remains available to livestock to feed on.
(4) Seed Viability (or profuseness): Seeds of pasture should be viable over a long period of time. It should be easily propagated to ensure high pasture productivity. read seed propagation here
(5) Resistance to Drought: Pasture or forage crops which is able to withstand drought helps to maintain high productivity and ensures all-season availability of forages for livestock.
(6) Pasture or forage crops are Pests and Diseases: Absence of pests and diseases within a pasture ensures their increased productivity.
(7) Accurate Stocking : An accurate number of animals should graze a specified area of pasture. Overgrazing does not ensure increased productivity of pasture.
(8) Good Management: Proper management practices such as regular weeding, rouging, irrigation, good grazing and fertilization should be practiced to ensure increased productivity of Pasture or forage crops.
HOW TO ESTABLISH PASTURE RANGE FOR FORAGE
Before pasture can established, the following factors should be considered:
(1) Adaptation of species: Legumes and grasses should be adapted to the local environment.
(2) Pasture or forage crops must be edible: Legumes and grasses to be established must be palatable and nutritious for animals
(3) Compatibility: the grass-legume mixture in the pasture must be compatible to each other
(4) Time of maturity: Grasses and legumes to be established should be able to mature within the shortest possible time.
(5) Life Cycle of the Species: Annuals with annual plants or perennials with perennial plants should be mixed together when establishing pasture. This is to ensure continuous availability of pasture.
The establishment of pasture takes the following sequence
(i) Site Selection: Select a suitable site which should be well-drained with good loamy soil.
(ii) Clearing of Land: The land should be cleared. read cultural practices here. Cut back the site with hoes and cutlasses.
(iii) Removal of Debris: Debris on the site should be removed or it could be gathered and burnt.
(iv) Cultivation of Site: The land, field or site should be cultivated by way of ploughing, harrowing and if possible ridging
(v) Planting of Pasture Crops: Planting of the desired pasture, grass or legume is carried out.
(vi) Supplying: Plant materials that fail to germinate should be supplied with new planting materials.
(vii) Planting of Legumes: Leguminous plants should be planted, especially in the case of grass and legume mixture.
(viii) Promotion of Tillering: The grasses should be cut back at regular intervals to promote tillering.
(ix) Weeding: Weeding should be done at regular intervals, especially at the early stages of the pasture
(x) Fertilizer Application Apply fertilizers at the appropriate rate by broadcasting.read how to apply fertilizer here
(xi) Irrigation: Light irrigation or watering of the planted seeds or stolons should be done, especially in arid area with low rainfall.
(xii) Paddocking The pasture should be broken into convenient units for good grazing management like rotational grazing
Determination of Plant Population of forage plants
In the establishment of pasture, it is very important to know the quality of pasture or forage crop to plant in a specified area of land.
In doing this, it is very important to understand certain principles and formula required to ensure an adequate plant population in an area of farmland. In order to be able to do this, it is compulsory to read and understand calculation of area of farmland and population in this blog.
A piece of land to be used to establish a pasture of Centrosema pubescens was surveyed to be circular:
(i) if the radius of the land is lOOm and the spacing of the pasture legume is 80cm by 40cm, what is the population of the legume at one seed per stand?
(ii) If the germination percentage is 60, calculate the expected plant population.
(i) Area of land is circular, therefore the formula needed is pr
Area of land = pr = 3.142 x 100 x 100
Spacing = 80cm x 40cm
Plant population of Centrosema pubescens
Area of land(m) = pr = 31.420m2
= 98,187 stands
(ii) Expected plant population:
Germination % =60%
i.e 60 x 98.187
Expected plant population: 58,912 stands of Centrosema pubescens
Area of land pr = 22/7 x 1m00 x 100m
Spacing 80cm x 40cm = 0.8m x 0.4 m
(ii) Expected plant population
Germination % 60
= 60 x 98,2 14
58, 928 stands of Centrosema pubescens