Vegetation zones in Nigeria, Map of Nigeria showing the different Vegetation Zones
Sahel Savanna
Sudan Savanna
Guinea Savanna

Nigeria, located in West Africa, is a diverse country with various vegetation zones.

These vegetation zones are primarily influenced by factors such as climate, rainfall patterns, and soil conditions. Here are the main vegetation zones in Nigeria:

Forest Zone: The southern part of Nigeria falls within the forest zone, characterized by high rainfall and dense tropical rainforests.

This region includes the Guinea-Congo Forests, which are known for their rich biodiversity and contain species like mahogany, ebony, and rubber trees.

Guinea Savannah Zone: This zone covers a large portion of Nigeria, extending from the southern forest zone to the central part of the country.

It is characterized by a mix of grassland and scattered trees. The Guinea Savannah is home to various tree species, including baobab, acacia, and shea butter trees.

Sudan Savannah Zone: Located in the northern part of Nigeria, the Sudan Savannah zone is drier compared to the Guinea Savannah.

It features tall grasses and sparse tree cover, adapted to the lower rainfall levels. This region is known for its baobab trees, thorny shrubs, and grasses that are suitable for grazing animals.

Sahel Savannah Zone: The Sahel Savannah is the northernmost vegetation zone in Nigeria. It is a semi-arid region with low rainfall and sparse vegetation.

Acacia trees and drought-resistant grasses dominate the landscape. The Sahel Savannah is prone to desertification and experiences the harshest climatic conditions in the country.

Mangrove Swamps: Along Nigeria\’s coastline, particularly in the Niger Delta region, there are extensive mangrove swamps.

These swamps are characterized by salt-tolerant vegetation, including mangrove trees, which thrive in brackish water and provide a unique habitat for various species of plants and animals.

Rain Forest forest vegetation zones of Nigeria

Mangrove and Fresh Water Swamp Forest

Mangrove and freshwater swamp forest vegetation zones

read about aquatic habitat
This occupies the delta part of Nigeria with heavy rainfall of up to 200 cm and more per annum.
The major activities in this region include lumbering (felling of timbers) read about forestry here and fishing.

Swamp rice can also be grown in the area.


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Rainforest vegetation zones

This occurs in the Southern part of Nigeria lying above the mangrove and freshwater Swamp Forest. The annual rainfall of this one is about 150 cm to 200 cm.

This region consists of tall woody trees and strong undergrowth. Examples of trees found here include iroko, obeche, opepe, mahogany, afara vegetation zones

There is a high degree of farming activity in this region. Crops commonly grown are yam, coco yam, cassava, maize, rice, plantain, cocoa, rubber, oil palm, kola, mango, citrus, etc

types of animals found in the rain forest zones of Nigeria

Animals include dwarf goats, sheep, pigs, cattle and poultry. Fish ponds are also kept. Guinea savanna This zone is cutting deep into the rainforest due to continued cultivation.

Such areas are now referred to as derived savanna. The Guinea Savanna area is made up of tall strong grasses Interspersed with trees of moderate heights. Annual rainfall is about 100cm to 150cm of vegetation zones

This zone is the largest vegetation zone in Nigeria. It is an area of intensive agricultural activity. Crops grown include all cereals, legumes such as cow peas and groundnuts, cotton, yam, cassava and potatoes Livestock include cattle, goat, sheep, poultry and others.

Sudan savanna vegetation zones of Nigeria

This zone is covered with more grasses and short scattered trees and has an annual rainfall of 50 cm to 75 cm. Agricultural activity in this area centres mainly on cattle, sheep and goat rearing. Poultry is also kept while donkeys, camels and horses are equally reared

Crops grown are mainly sugar cane, millet and sorghum.
Vegetables particularly carrots and tomatoes are grown along river beds, streams and in areas with irrigation facilities.

Sahel savanna vegetation zones of Nigeria

This occupies the extreme north-east of Nigeria with an annual rainfall of about 15 cm to 50 cm.

It is characterized by feathery grasses and highly scattered spiny shrubs (thorn bushes).
Animals are mostly reared here during the rainy season while drought\’ resistant crops like dwarf sorghum and millet are cultivated.

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