UNDER-POPULATION, Under population may be defined as the type of population that is less than the available resources of a country.
It then that the size of the population is so small that when combined with the available resources of country and given the level of existing technology, it will secure minimum returns per
In summary, under-population is a situation where the population is too small relative to the available resources.
The standard ring of the area can be increased if the population is increased.
Causes of under-population
- A decrease in birth rate A. decrease in the birth rate in any country for whatever reason generally leads to under population.
- An increase in death rate: An increase in death rate of the people in any country for whatever reason, be it war, diseases, old age, flood and famine, also leads to under population.
- High level of emigration: When the rate at which people leave a country (emigration) is higher than that at which people come in (immigration), under population is bound to occur.
Advantages of under-population
- Abundant resources: There will be abundance of resources in areas where there are resources endowment.
- Availability of employment: Due to the small size of the population and abundance of resources, employment
- opportunities will readily be available.
- Low pressure on social amenities: Owing to low population, there is also low pressure on social amenities in the area.
- Low congestion: Also, due to low population, there will be low or no congestion in housing and traffic. Adequate planning: Owing to low population, these areas are properly planned for decent living.
- Low crime rate: The rate of armed robberies, car snatching, etc is greatly reduced.
Implication or disadvantages of under population
- Inadequate labour force: The available labour force is grossly inadequate to manage the abundant resources available in the state.
- Low level of production: As a result of low level of manpower available production is generally very low.
- Low savings and investments: Workers generally earn low as a result of low level of production income and this leads to low savings and investments.
- Low standard of living: Due to inadequate labour force that would have promoted output, the standard of living will eventually fall.
- Under-utilization of infrastructure: Pipe borne water are electricity are grossly under utilized.
- Disincentive to government: Government does not always feel like investing in places of under-population.
- Small size of market: As a result of low level of income per capital and fewer number of people, the size of the market is usually very small due to low demand.
- Low level of export: As a result of low output of goods and services, there is always a low level of export for these goods and services.