Tillage machinery and implements refer to the tillage implements that are first used to open or loosen the soil while preparing it to receive seeds.
This initial opening of the soil is called primary tillage. The primary tillage implements are the ploughs
Tillage machinery and implements are used to prepare the soil for planting. They can be used to break up the soil, remove weeds, and incorporate fertilizers and amendments.
Tillage machinery and implements can be divided into two main categories:
Types of Tillage Machinery: primary tillage and secondary tillage.
Primary tillage is used to break up the soil and create a seedbed. Primary tillage implements include:
- Plows: Plows are used to break up the soil and turn it over.
- Chisel ploughs: Chisel ploughs are used to break up the soil without turning it over.
- Disks: Disks are used to cut and chop up the soil.
- Rotary tillers: Rotary tillers are used to break up the soil and incorporate fertilizers and amendments.
Secondary tillage is used to prepare the seedbed for planting. Secondary tillage implements include:
- Harrows: Harrows are used to break up clods of soil and level the seedbed.
- Cultivators: Cultivators are used to remove weeds and incorporate fertilizers and amendments.
- Planters: Planters are used to plant seeds in the prepared seedbed.
Tillage machinery and implements can be used on a variety of scales, from small hand tools to large tractors and implements. The type of tillage machinery and implements used will depend on the size of the field, the type of soil, and the crops being grown.
Here are some examples of tillage machinery and implements:
- Tractor-mounted ploughA tractor-mounted plough is a large plough that is attached to a tractor. It is used to break up the soil and turn it over.
- Chisel plough: A chisel plough is a large plough that is used to break up the soil without turning it over. It is often used in conservation tillage systems.
- Disk harrow: A disk harrow is a large harrow that is used to break up clods of soil and level the seedbed. It is often used in conjunction with a plough to prepare the seedbed for planting.
- Cultivator: A cultivator is a tractor-mounted implement that is used to remove weeds and incorporate fertilizers and amendments.
- Planter: A planter is a tractor-mounted implement that is used to plant seeds in the prepared seedbed.
Tillage machinery and implements play an important role in agriculture. They help to prepare the soil for planting and to ensure that crops have the best chance of success.
There are two types of tillage machinery.
These are Primary and secongary tillage machinery:
This refers to the tillage implements that are first used to open or loosen the soil preparing it to receive seeds. This initial opening of the soil is called primary tillage. The primary tillage implements are the ploughs.
Ploughs as a type of primary tillage machinery and implement
The ploughs are primary tillage implements, unlike simple farm tools that are used to break and turn the soil over in the course of preparing it for planting.
Ploughs break the soil into large clods and lumps. Tillage is the working of soils or loosening of soils before seeds are planted. The purpose of soil tillage is to provide:
(a) Suitable seed-bed for seed germination and emergence,
(b) Easy water infiltration,
(c) Better soil aeration or air movement,
(d) Control of weeds,
There are two types of tillage machinery. These are:
Primary tillage machinery:
This refers to the tillage implements that are first used to open or loosen the soil preparing it to receive seeds. This initial opening of the soil is called primary tillage.
The primary tillage implements are the ploughs.
The ploughs are primary tillage implements that are used initially to break and turn the soil over in the course of preparing it for planting. Ploughs break the soil into large clods and lumps.
The ploughs are of three types. These are the moldboard plough, the chisel plough, and the disc plough. The mouldboard plough amongst other parts, has the caughter and share for cutting and mouldboard for inverting the soil. Most importantly,
The disc plough has discs or concave metal blades that cut into the and turn it over. The discs are mounted on frames called disc standards.
The standards connect the discs to the beam or hols and cylindrical part of the plough. The disc plough can be better and is more adapted to Nigerian soils than the mouldboard plough.
The ploughs are usually attached to be pulled by the tract Work animals such as bullocks can also be used to pull ploughs for land cultivation.
Secondary tillage machinery and implements:
This refers to tillage implements used to cultivate the soil after the ploughs have initially been used.
The purposes of secondary types of tillage machinery include:
- To break down the large solid clods obtained from primary tillage.
- Kill weeds further
- Incorporate manure or fertilizers into the soil, and
- Produce suitable tilt or soil structure for seeds
The secondary tillage machinery includes the harrows, ridgers, cultivators, rotavators and rollers.
The harrows are secondary tillage implements used for breaking and help to put the soil in good seed-bed condition for seed emergence. The use of harrows kills weeds not affected by the ploughs. The implement can also be used to cover seeds with soil after broadcast.
The harrows consist of discs, or tines that are fitted to a shaft. All the parts rotate as one unit. The implement is hitched or attached to the tractor during farm operation.
Different types of harrow tillage implements are in existence.
Ridgers tillage machinery and implement:
The ridger is an implement that is used to turn the soil in one direction after ploughing to form ridges. Crops such as yam, cassava and potato can be sown thereafter.
There are two types of ridgers. These are the disc ridger and mouldboard ridger.
The two ridgers work in the same way. However, disc ridge 1 is better for use in Nigerian soils. This is because the soil contains obstacles such as stumps, roots and stones.
At times the soils are sticky and the disc ridger can effectively work in such conditions without frequent breakdown.
The disc ridger consists of opposed concave discs which actually make the ridges. The discs are fitted to mental frame called standard.
This is bolted to a bigger frame called a beam. The ridger is attached to the tractor during field operation. The mouldboard ridger has features common to the disc
ridger. It however has concave or convex blades used to turn the soil in order to form ridges.
Cultivator tillage machinery and implements :
The cultivator is a secondary tillage implement. It is attached to the tractor during field operation. It consists of several tines used to stir the soil and break down soil clods.
The cultivator is also used for weed combing, and dragging out stones and tree roots from the soil. The implement can be used for weeding and incorporating fertilizers into the soil after broadcast.
Rotavator tillage machinery:
This is also a secondary tillage implement that has a set of rotating blades. It breaks up soil clods and farm thrashes are chopped up in the process for easy decomposition.
Other farm machinery for tillage practices
Seed drills: These machines can be operated by tractor or by hand. They drop or plant seeds and in some cases, discharge fertilizer at the same time.
Planters tillage machinery and implements-*+
These are machines designed to plant seeds. Some of them are built to plant one type of seed. Others can plant more than one type of crop. This is achieved by changing the plates.
The planter built to plant seeds in rows with enough distance between the stands is referred to as a row planter. Some plants are able to plant seeds and distribute fertilizer at the same time
The planters can be mounted on a tractor or trailed.
The lathe is a machineare that is used for holding and turning wood or metal into different shapes. Today, there are many different lathes used for all types of shaping of materials.
The kinds of latautomaticloped from the centre lathe capstan lathes, turret lathes, cropping lathes, automatic lats |j and special purpose- lathes. In the school workshop, the operations are turning, facing, drilling, boring, parting, and knurl! and sometimes screw cutting.
Motor-saw or powered chain-saw tillage machinery and implements
This machine consists of a small petrol engine, steel blade and chain round the blade.
The chain rotates during operation and is the cut edge of the machine. The motor saw has two handles for either handling and positioning during use. The machine is becoming popular among small-scale farmers because:
(i) It is used in cutting down (felling) trees during farming preparation.
(ii)It is used in felling and cutting timber trees into logs.
(iii) it is Also used to split logs into planks.
(iv) It is used in trimming the big branches of trees.
These are machines designed for the harvesting of ripe and mature crops from the field.
Common harvest machines as types tillage implements :
The combine harvester is commonly used in commercial farms for the harvesting of cereals such as rice, maize, wheat, and barley As the name suggests, the combine cuts the standing crops,
separates the seeds from the chaff, and collects the grains tank while crop residues are thrown Held. These activities are completed in one operation.
Field mowers (weeders) are machines used to cut grasses for haymaking. They are also used for clearing farms lawns and parks. Most field mowers are designed in rows. Examples are the blade mower and the drum mower….
This is a machine consisting of a tank where the chemical is stored pump, spray booms and nozzles.
The sprayer is used for:
1. Applying herbicides, insecticides and fungicides.
2. Watering crops
3. Applying liquid fertilizers.
4. Applying hormones to increase fruit yield or prevent dropping of fruits.
There are three types of sprayer.
The simple knapsack sprayer:
This can take between nine and twenty-three litres of solution. It is usually mounted and tipped to the back of the operator during field operation.
The tractor-mounted sprayer:
This is attached to the tractor during field operation. The sprayer is operated by the power take-off or P.T.O.
The knapsack engine operated:
This type is made of plastic tank for the liquid chemical and uses petrol as Its source power. As in the simple knapsack, the operator i the spray boom to the crops or objects to be sprayed.
Spraying with chemicals should not be done during bad weather. The chemicals left after spraying exercise must not be poured in places where they can contaminate vegetables and drinking water
Protective covers should be used by the operator during field operation. Sprayers should be washed, and cleaned after use, and a safe place until needed.
Accessory Tools for tillage machinery and implements
These are tools which are useful for the effective utilization of farm machines. They include:
Pliers used for holding parts of some tillage machinery and implements
This tool is like a pair of scissors. It is made with two handles having plastic coverings. The pliers holding things such as wires during electrical
These are made of round rods which are beaten flat at the tips. The handles are made of wooden materials.
The screwdriver is used for tightening and re-tightening screws, it is also used for loosening screws. There is also the star-screw driver with multiple or star-like grooves. they are used to tightening tillage machinery and implements
Nuts and bolts tillage machinery and implements
for every tillage machinery, there are bolts and muts Nuts are small pieces of metal num screwed onto the end of a bolt. On the other hand, bolts are metal pins with heads. Nuts and bolts are together used for holding parts of machines together or in place.
The spanners are made of metal used for loosening and tightening bolts and nuts of tillage machinery and implements during operation. Some have the two ends split into two teeth for holding nuts and bolts. the spanner is essentially used for:
( i) tightening and re-tightening of nuts and bolts: and
(ii) loosening nuts and bolts.
The hammer consists of a thick small metal head and a wooden or metal handle. It is used for knocking in nailing and also to beat metals into flat shapes.
This is a tool that is used in tightening, re-tightening and loosening deep-seated nuts or nuts of some tillage machinery brands that cannot be reached with the ordinary spanner or screwdriver.
Oil applicator or can:
This contains oil which is applied to engine parts with the help of its pointed tip.
This instrument is used to apply grease to engine parts. It consists of a tank and a long pipe with which the tease is pumped into the inner parts of engines.
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