TYPES OF CROPPING SYSTEMS

 

 

TYPES OF CROPPING SYSTEMS. 1. Identify and explain the different cropping systems.
2. Give the advantages and disadvantages of each cropping system
The way a farmland is cropped varies from one farmer to the other system adopted may depend on the available farmland, the type of agriculture (whether subsistence or ), the need of the farmer and so on.

types of cropping systems

why we study types of cropping systems in agriculture

It is worthy of note that farming practice is not static as such it is evolving. So in this article we shall consider the most widely practiced the world over
The following are the cropping systems commonly practiced by farmers.

 

1 Mono-cropping types of cropping systems

This is the growing of only one type of crop (such as maize) on a piece of land. It could be for a season or for several years as in plantation farming.

 

The system is also termed sole cropping. Most often this type of farming practice involves mechanization.

 

Advantages of mono cropping types of cropping systems of agriculture

1. It makes possible the use of machines in farm operation. read agricultural mechanization here.

2. Mono-cropping leads higher productivity per hectare,

3. It also leads to specialization among farmers.

4. The control of weeds is easy. This is because herbicides can be used

5. It employs more labor thereby leading to greater harvest

GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION

18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM

 

Disadvantages of mono-cropping system of cropping

1. It is risky because crop failure arising from pest, diseases or weather conditions will result in total loss of income to the farmer for that year.

2. The system encourages the rapid spread of pests and diseases on the farm.

3. Labour may not be efficiently utilized throughout the year.

4. It does not afford the farmer a variety of crops.

5. Most often it requires high capital investment.  read more about agricultural loan here

6. It can’t be practiced within an area where there is community farming

more on land tenure system

2. Mixed cropping types of cropping systems

 

This is also called multiple cropping because it involves the planting of more than one type of crop on the same farmland in one planting season

. It is very common under subsistence agriculture and in are where farmlands are limited. Under mixed cropping, the farmer could practice any of the following:

 

(a) Inter-planting types of cropping systems

: This is the growing of two crops together on the same land. The crop which was planted first is also harvest first while the one planted last remains on the plot to harvested later.

 

An example is the growing of maize, cassava, groundnut, melon, yam and okra together on the same piece of land in one planting season. Maize, which is usually planted first, is also harvest first. Maize is therefore said to be inter-planted with yam.

(b) Inter-cropping: This is when two crops are grown together with the crop planted last being harvested first. Usually the c planted last has shorter lifespan than the one planted first, example is the planting of melon after yam has been plant The melon will be harvested first while the yam continues on plot. Yam is therefore said to be intercropped with melon.

Advantages

1. It affords the farmer a variety of crops.

2. It serves as insurance against the failure of one type of crops.

3. It minimizes the spread of diseases and pests on the farm.

4. It enables the crops to make efficient use of soil nutrients.

5. The ensures efficient utilization of labour throughout the year.

Disadvantages

1. It does not encourage the use of machines on the farm.

2. It may lead to rapid exhaustion of soil nutrients if legumes not included.

3. It is labour intensive.

4. Pests and disease of crops agents may persist on the farmland. This is because there are always food and alternative hosts for them.

 

3. Continuous cropping types of cropping systems

This is the practice of putting a farmland under cultivation continuously that is from year to year. It may take any of form: this type of farming practice usually lead to soil loss of nutrients, becoming acidic

(a) Annual cropping:

Planting annual crops which are replaced after harvesting. This means the land is cleared, tilled and cropped every season. read more on pre-planting operations here . This is common where land is scarce. this type of farming is mostly practiced in the southern parts of Nigeria

 

 

(b) Permanent cropping:

This involves planting and maintaining the crops, usually permanent crops continuously on the farm land, it usually in plantations. read cultural practices in crop production

Advantages

1 It reduces the cost of land preparation after the initial clearing and tilling.

2 It enables the farmer to construct permanent structures such as storage structures on the farm.

3 It can be practiced where land is scarce.

Disadvantages

1. The fertility of the soil is easily exhausted.

2. It leads to destruction of soil structure. read land degradation here

3. It encourages soil erosion.

4. Yields me normally reduced with increasing years of cropping.

5. It encourages build-up of crop pests and disease agents.

6. It required high amount of money to keep the land fertile and productive. you can read about soil fertility management here

 

 

4. Crop Rotation type of cropping systems

This involves the planting of different types of crop in different plots on a farmland during one season; and at the beginning of the next season, the crops are changed from their respective plots, while following a definite order or sequence.

The system combines mixed cropping with continuous cropping and is mainly practiced by institutions of learning.

For crop rotation to be successful, certain principles must be followed

 

 

 

Principles of Crop Rotation types of cropping systems

(a) The same type of crop should not be allowed to follow each other on the same plot. For example, maize should not follow maize.

(b) Crops that belong to the same group should not also follow each other on the same plot, e.g. cassava should not follow yam, or to follow maize.

(c) Crops that have deep roots like yam and cassava, read more about classification of crops here.. should be followed with those that have shallow roots such as maize and groundnut.

(d) Crops that consume a lot of nitrogen such as the-cereal group should be followed by those that add nitrogen to the soil such as maize and the legume group,

(e) Crops likely to be affected by the same disease or pest should not follow each other on the same plot. The number of crops involved in the rotation will determine the type of rotation. Therefore, there could be a two-year, three-year, or tour-year crop rotation.

How to Design a Four-Year Crop Rotation

(a) Divide the farmland into four plots.

(b) Choose the crops to cultivate.

(c) Plant one crop on each plot, making sure the principles guiding the adoption of the system are adhered to.

(4) At the end of one season, shift the crop from plot B to A, C to B, D to C and A to D

(5) Follow this sequence until the fourth year is reached.

 

Year

Plot A

Plot B

Plot C

Plot D

1

Maize

Cassava

Groundnut

Yam and Melon

2

Cassava

Groundnut

Yam and Melon

Maize

3

Groundnut

Yam and Melon

Maize

Cassava

4

Yam and Melon

Maize

Cassava

Groundnut

Figure 3.2.1: A Four-Year Crop Rotation,

Advantages

1. It helps to maintain soil fertility.

2. It makes efficient use of soil nutrients.

3. The farmer has access to a variety of crops.

4. It minimize the spread of diseases and pests and helps to check weeds

5. It reduces soil erosion.

6. It leads to efficient utilization of labour.

7. It is a good practice where land is scarce.

Disadvantages

1. It is labour intensive.

2. Crop yields may decrease with years except additional manures or fertilizers are applied.

3. It leads to destruction of soil structure which may facilitate soil erosion.

I want to re-iterate here that the various cropping systems listed in this article are not the final list of the various farming practices, so as read this article and there remembered any not listed here please feel free to leave your comment

don’t forget to use the comment box and leave a message or suggestion and we will get back to you within seconds.

 

 

84.

GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION

18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM

 

 

 

TYPES OF CROPPING SYSTEMS. 1. Identify and explain the different cropping systems.
2. Give the advantages and disadvantages of each cropping system
The way a farmland is cropped varies from one farmer to the other system adopted may depend on the available farmland, the type of agriculture (whether subsistence or ), the need of the farmer and so on.

types of cropping systems

why we study types of cropping systems in agriculture

It is worthy of note that farming practice is not static as such it is evolving. So in this article we shall consider the most widely practiced the world over
The following are the cropping systems commonly practiced by farmers.

 

1 Mono-cropping types of cropping systems

This is the growing of only one type of crop (such as maize) on a piece of land. It could be for a season or for several years as in plantation farming.

 

The system is also termed sole cropping. Most often this type of farming practice involves mechanization.

 

Advantages of mono cropping types of cropping systems of agriculture

1. It makes possible the use of machines in farm operation. read agricultural mechanization here.

2. Mono-cropping leads higher productivity per hectare,

3. It also leads to specialization among farmers.

4. The control of weeds is easy. This is because herbicides can be used

5. It employs more labor thereby leading to greater harvest

GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION

18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM

 

Disadvantages of mono-cropping system of cropping

1. It is risky because crop failure arising from pest, diseases or weather conditions will result in total loss of income to the farmer for that year.

2. The system encourages the rapid spread of pests and diseases on the farm.

3. Labour may not be efficiently utilized throughout the year.

4. It does not afford the farmer a variety of crops.

5. Most often it requires high capital investment.  read more about agricultural loan here

6. It can’t be practiced within an area where there is community farming

more on land tenure system

2. Mixed cropping types of cropping systems

 

This is also called multiple cropping because it involves the planting of more than one type of crop on the same farmland in one planting season

. It is very common under subsistence agriculture and in are where farmlands are limited. Under mixed cropping, the farmer could practice any of the following:

 

(a) Inter-planting types of cropping systems

: This is the growing of two crops together on the same land. The crop which was planted first is also harvest first while the one planted last remains on the plot to harvested later.

 

An example is the growing of maize, cassava, groundnut, melon, yam and okra together on the same piece of land in one planting season. Maize, which is usually planted first, is also harvest first. Maize is therefore said to be inter-planted with yam.

(b) Inter-cropping: This is when two crops are grown together with the crop planted last being harvested first. Usually the c planted last has shorter lifespan than the one planted first, example is the planting of melon after yam has been plant The melon will be harvested first while the yam continues on plot. Yam is therefore said to be intercropped with melon.

Advantages

1. It affords the farmer a variety of crops.

2. It serves as insurance against the failure of one type of crops.

3. It minimizes the spread of diseases and pests on the farm.

4. It enables the crops to make efficient use of soil nutrients.

5. The ensures efficient utilization of labour throughout the year.

Disadvantages

1. It does not encourage the use of machines on the farm.

2. It may lead to rapid exhaustion of soil nutrients if legumes not included.

3. It is labour intensive.

4. Pests and disease of crops agents may persist on the farmland. This is because there are always food and alternative hosts for them.

 

3. Continuous cropping types of cropping systems

This is the practice of putting a farmland under cultivation continuously that is from year to year. It may take any of form: this type of farming practice usually lead to soil loss of nutrients, becoming acidic

(a) Annual cropping:

Planting annual crops which are replaced after harvesting. This means the land is cleared, tilled and cropped every season. read more on pre-planting operations here . This is common where land is scarce. this type of farming is mostly practiced in the southern parts of Nigeria

 

 

(b) Permanent cropping:

This involves planting and maintaining the crops, usually permanent crops continuously on the farm land, it usually in plantations. read cultural practices in crop production

Advantages

1 It reduces the cost of land preparation after the initial clearing and tilling.

2 It enables the farmer to construct permanent structures such as storage structures on the farm.

3 It can be practiced where land is scarce.

Disadvantages

1. The fertility of the soil is easily exhausted.

2. It leads to destruction of soil structure. read land degradation here

3. It encourages soil erosion.

4. Yields me normally reduced with increasing years of cropping.

5. It encourages build-up of crop pests and disease agents.

6. It required high amount of money to keep the land fertile and productive. you can read about soil fertility management here

 

 

4. Crop Rotation type of cropping systems

This involves the planting of different types of crop in different plots on a farmland during one season; and at the beginning of the next season, the crops are changed from their respective plots, while following a definite order or sequence.

The system combines mixed cropping with continuous cropping and is mainly practiced by institutions of learning.

For crop rotation to be successful, certain principles must be followed

 

 

 

Principles of Crop Rotation types of cropping systems

(a) The same type of crop should not be allowed to follow each other on the same plot. For example, maize should not follow maize.

(b) Crops that belong to the same group should not also follow each other on the same plot, e.g. cassava should not follow yam, or to follow maize.

(c) Crops that have deep roots like yam and cassava, read more about classification of crops here.. should be followed with those that have shallow roots such as maize and groundnut.

(d) Crops that consume a lot of nitrogen such as the-cereal group should be followed by those that add nitrogen to the soil such as maize and the legume group,

(e) Crops likely to be affected by the same disease or pest should not follow each other on the same plot. The number of crops involved in the rotation will determine the type of rotation. Therefore, there could be a two-year, three-year, or tour-year crop rotation.

How to Design a Four-Year Crop Rotation

(a) Divide the farmland into four plots.

(b) Choose the crops to cultivate.

(c) Plant one crop on each plot, making sure the principles guiding the adoption of the system are adhered to.

(4) At the end of one season, shift the crop from plot B to A, C to B, D to C and A to D

(5) Follow this sequence until the fourth year is reached.

 

Year

Plot A

Plot B

Plot C

Plot D

1

Maize

Cassava

Groundnut

Yam and Melon

2

Cassava

Groundnut

Yam and Melon

Maize

3

Groundnut

Yam and Melon

Maize

Cassava

4

Yam and Melon

Maize

Cassava

Groundnut

Figure 3.2.1: A Four-Year Crop Rotation,

Advantages

1. It helps to maintain soil fertility.

2. It makes efficient use of soil nutrients.

3. The farmer has access to a variety of crops.

4. It minimize the spread of diseases and pests and helps to check weeds

5. It reduces soil erosion.

6. It leads to efficient utilization of labour.

7. It is a good practice where land is scarce.

Disadvantages

1. It is labour intensive.

2. Crop yields may decrease with years except additional manures or fertilizers are applied.

3. It leads to destruction of soil structure which may facilitate soil erosion.

I want to re-iterate here that the various cropping systems listed in this article are not the final list of the various farming practices, so as read this article and there remembered any not listed here please feel free to leave your comment

don’t forget to use the comment box and leave a message or suggestion and we will get back to you within seconds.

 

 

84.

GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION

18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM

 

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