THE SKELETAL SYSTEMS AND SUPPORTING TISSUES

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SKELETAL SYSTEMS AND SUPPORTING TISSUES

Introduction to the skeletal system in living organisms
Living 0rganisms including plants and animals need tissues and other supporting systems to enable them carry out life’s processes such as movement, respiration, feeding and reproduction.
Here is a typical example of what I am saying, without the various bones and tissues, vertebrates will not be able to stand, respire, move and carry out other life’s processes

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Many multi-cellular organisms, mostly plants and animals needs to support themselves in some way to enable them to maintain their shape. It is also worthy of note that without the skeletal system, we as humans will not be able to stand upright, move about in search of food, carry loads, raise our heads and other parts of the body. As a result of the above stated facts about the skeletal system of living organisms, we have no choice than to devote ample time to study one of the essential parts of living organisms.

THE SKELETAL SYSTEM AND THE SUPPORTING TISSUES IN ANIMALS

What is skeleton? Why do we have skeleton in our body as living things?
The question will not be complete if we don’t ask how many bines are there in the human body or how can we count the number of bones in the body of humans. So here is a compact definition of the skeletal system

WHAT IS SKELETON?

Skeleton is the bony framework of the body which provides support, shape and protection of the soft tissues and organs in animals. Without the skeletal system, animals may not be able to carry out most of life’s processes such as movement, respiration and feeding. One of the most important functions of the skeletal system is that it enables animals to move from place to place

WEED AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION

18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. <ahref=”https: www.apsnet.org=”” edcenter=”” disandpath=”” fungalbasidio=”” pdlessons=”” pages=”” coffeerust.aspx”=””>COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON</ahref=”https:>

89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION

147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES

154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

.
The skeletal system helps to determine the advancement and development of organisms, for instance, man is able to stand erects/upright because of our sophisticated skeletal system.

THE COMPONENT OF SKELETAL MATERIALS AND THEIR VARIOUS FORMS

This is most confusing in trying to understand and name the various forms of the skeletal system. The issue here is what are materials the creator of living organisms used in making the skeleton? Does the skeleton have components? So join me as I take deeper into the study of skeletal system of living organisms.
There are three forms of skeletal materials found in animals. These are cuticles, bones and cartilages

1.

CUTICLES

The cuticles as a material of the skeletal system, is composed of chitin and a thin of proof layer of wax. The chitin is non-living substance, therefore animals with this type of skeletal material can only grow by moulting. In this process of growth called moulting, an organism only shed off it old skeletal system and put on a new one. In order words, any organism with this type of skeleton will have put off the old skin.
The cuticle is an exoskeleton which is located externally on the body of the organism. An example of organism with the cuticle as its skeletal material system are mainly arthropods which are insects, crabs, scorpion and prawns
2.

BONES

The bones as part of the skeletal system of organisms, is a tissue and a major component of the vertebral skeleton. It consists of living bone cells called osteocytes, protein fibres called collagen and minerals which is mainly calcium-phosphate and calcium-carbonate.

The minerals, which is the non-living component of the bone is made up of the mass of a bone. As a result, bone is stronger and more rigid tissue than the cartilage.
A bone consists of a hard outer layer-shaft and a spongy or hollow cavity filled with bone marrow. A typical example of organisms which have bones are mainly vertebrates, which are bony fishes, toads, lizards, snakes, birds and mammals.

3.

CARTILAGE

The cartilage, as form of material found in the skeletal system, is a tissue found in the skeleton of complex vertebrates. The cartilage consist of living cells called chondroblasts, carbohydrates and protein fibres. The cartilage is a flexible and tough tissue that has great tensile strength.

The cartilage acts as a shock absorber, cushioning the effects of bone moving against bone during movement. Examples of organisms with cartilages are mainly cartilaginous fishes like wales, sharks and mammals generally.

TYPES OF CARTILAGES
In mammals mostly, there are three types of cartilages. They are
i. Hyaline cartilages
This type of cartilages is found in bronchi and trachea, surfaces of movable joints, the protruding part of the nose which supports it
ii. Fibro-cartilages
This types of cartilages is tougher than hyaline cartilages and it is found in the discs between the small bones of the vertebral column
iii. Elastic cartilages
This type of cartilages is found in the external ear called pinnae and the epiglottis

THE VITAMINS AND MINERALS ELEMENTS NECESSARY FOR HEALTHY BONE DEVELOPMENT

Generally it is said that growth is effective and consistent if certain activities which are supposed to propel it is in proportion to it. So these vitamins and mineral elements are
i. Vitamin-D Calciferol, Vitamin-C all form the cement of bone
ii. Mineral elements are calcium/phosphorus/magnesium

The difference between bones and cartilages

BONES

I. Bone is made up of living and non-living cells
II. Bones are flexible especially in adults
III. Bone is made up of hard
IV. Bone can never be replaced by a cartilage
V. Bone is made up of mineral salts
VI. Bone is stronger, and it is a more rigid tissue

CARTILAGE

/
i. Cartilage is made up of mainly living cells
ii. Cartilage is very flexible both in young and the adult
iii. Cartilage is made up of soft materials or
iv. Cartilage is not as strong as the bone but it is a flexible tissue
TYPES OF SKELETON
Continue reading

TYPES OF BONE

PLEASE READ MY PREVIOUS ARTICLE ON FORMS OF SKELETAL MATERIALS AND BONES TO FULLY UNDERSTAND WHAT IS SKELETON

As I highlighted in my previous post, here I will be treating the various types of skeleton in more advanced detail. As you read, if there is any topic or subject, or whatever question you would like me to clarify please don’t hesitate to use our comment box or search this blog using the search box.

There are three main types of skeleton.

They are
1. Hydrostatic skeleton
2. Exoskeleton and
3. Endoskeleton

The Hydrostatic fluid skeleton

The hydrostatic skeleton is the type of skeleton possessed by soft-bodied animals. They have fluid pressure to provide support. The fluid is secreted to fill the spaces in the body. The fluid presses against the body wall, causing the muscles to contract, exerting pressure against the fluid.
This helps to maintain the shape and form of the animal. Example of organisms with this type of skeleton is the earthworm and anemones

EXOSKELETON

Exoskeleton is the type that is found in outside or the external part of the body of some animals. Most vertebrates also possess cuticle which is composed of chitin.
The Chitin is non-living commonly found covering the outer parts of the body of some animals. Such external skeletal tissues encloses, supports, gives shape, protects and enable the animals to move about from place to place.

Here is a skeletal system of human
Examples of organisms with exoskeleton are invertebrates like Euglena, Paramecium, Hydra, Tapeworm, Snails, Prawn, Crabs, Spiders, Crayfish, millipedes and earthworms.
Organisms with this type of skeleton can only grow by a process called moulting or ecdysis. In this process, an organism sheds off its old skeleton, and is covered with a new one as it grows.

ENDOSKELETON

An endoskeleton is the type of skeletal system that is found in the body of the animal. Endoskeleton exists in bony or cartilaginous skeleton of fishes, toad, lizards, birds and mammals. The endoskeleton in vertebrates is made up of cartilages and bones. Endoskeleton in mammals are the skull, vertebral column or backbone, ribs and the bones of the fore-limbs and hind-limbs

THE BONES OF AXIAL AND APPENDICULAR SKELETON

The skeletal system or bones in mammals like that of rabbit are grouped into two major parts. These are the Axial and Appendicular skeleton.
1. Axial skeleton
The Axial skeleton is made up of the skull, vertebral column or backbone, the ribs, sternum/breastbone
2. Appendicular skeleton
The Appendicular skeleton is made up of the limb girdles (pectoral and pelvic girdle) and the limbs (forelimbs and hind limbs)

THE SKULL

The mammalian skull is made up of several flat bones which are joined together by means of joints called sutures

There are three major parts of the skull
i. The cranium which is often called the brain box. This part of the skull houses the brain
ii. The facial skeleton, supports the nose, eyes and the muscles of the cheek.
iii. The jaw. This part of the skull is made up of the upper jaw called MAXILLA and the lower jaw known as mandible in the teeth is also fixed.

The functions of the skull

i. The skull gives protection to the brain
ii. The skull gives shape to the head
iii. The skull protects vital organs like eyes, nose and ears
iv. The skull bears the teeth which is used for the grinding of food

THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN

The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spinal column, is the central supporting structural system of the skeleton. The vertebral column forms the backbone of the vertebrate animals and houses the spinal cord.
It is made up of five group of bones known as the vertebrae=== singular vertebra. In humans, it consists of 33 vertebrae while in rabbit it consists of 46 vertebrae. The vertebrae are held one the other with a strong ligament having compressible cartilage pads called INVERTEBRAL DISC between consecutive vertebrae.

In mammals, the five different vertebrae are

1. Cervical vertebrae===== this found in the neck region
2. Thoracic vertebrae=====this type of vertebra is found in the chest region
3. Lumber vertebrae====this type of vertebrae is found along the upper abdomen
4. Sacral vertebrae=== this type of vertebrae is found around the lower abdomen
5. Caudal vertebrae=-==== this type of vertebrae is found around the tail region.

The features of typical vertebrae

All vertebrae, even though they have different functions, have certain features in common. So a typical vertebrae has the following features in common

i.

Neural carnal:

this is for the passage of the spinal cord
ii.

Neural spine:

this projects upwards dorsally for the attachment of muscles
iii.

Transverse process:

they projects from each sides of the vertebrae for the attachment of muscles and ligaments
iv.

Centrum:

it is a solid piece of bone below the neural canal
v. Facet: this a small, smooth and slight depressed area on a bone that is usually a point of contact with another bone.
vi. Zygapophysis: these are articular surfaces for the articulation of successive vertebrae. They are grouped into two parts. Pre-zygopaphysis facing inward and upwards while the post-zygapophysis faces outward and downward

Don’t get tired friend, read about the various types of vertebrae here
Types of vertebrae and their functions

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You can read some of most interesting topics below

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.

WEED AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION

18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. <ahref=”https: www.apsnet.org=”” edcenter=”” disandpath=”” fungalbasidio=”” pdlessons=”” pages=”” coffeerust.aspx”=””>COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON</ahref=”https:>

89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION

147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES

154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

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