SYSTEM OF AGRICULTURE. The systems of agricultural production system of farming whereby a farmer cultivates crops and rears animals in order to produce food include the following:
Peasant farming: Peasant farming also referred to as subsistence farming is defined as the type of agriculture which is concerned with the production of food for the farmer and his family. In other words,
it is a system of farming whereby a farmer cultivates crops and rears animals in order to produce food for use by himself and his family only.
- Identify the main components of agriculture
- Explain the main features of various systems of agriculture.
- Explain the importance of agriculture to economic development by using Nigeria as an example.
- Explain the processes and challenges of marketing both food and cash crops in Nigeria.
Some of the features or characteristics of peasant farming include the following:
- It requires a small area of land
- Family labour is usually employed
- The yield obtained from such small farm is usually low.
- Crude implements like cutlass, hoe etc are usually employed.
- There is usually little or none left for sale.
- It requires small capital to operate.
- Food crops like rice, yam and maize are manly grown.
Plantation farming: Plantation farming involves the cultivation of some economic crops in large areas of land. In this type of farming only one crop (mono-culture) is grown in a large area of land.
Some of the characteristics of plantation agriculture are:
It requires a large area of land
It requires huge capital investment
Only one crop is cultivated
It requires the use of machine like tractors, plough etc.
Harvest or yield is usually great
It may be owned by government, private individuals or corporate bodies.
Output or yield is mainly for sale.
Mechanized farming as a system of agriculture
:Mechanized farming also referred to as commercial agriculture, is the type of agriculture which is concerned with the production of food, animals and cash crops in large quantities mainly for sale.
A version of mechanized farming is the state farming. The state farming is a system of agriculture in which the state, through is agencies, engages in large scale farming for both local and foreign markets.
Characteristics of mechanized farming include the following:
- It requires a large area of land
- Complex and modern equipment like tractor, sprayers and ploughs are used.
- It requires huge capital investment.
- It requires special marketing strategies
- Pest and diseases are usually controlled
- It requires special skills and technical education or labour
- Production is mainly for sale
- Storage and processing facilities are required
- It is mostly practiced by very rich farmers, companies and governments.
Co-operative farming system
This is the type of farming in which farmers come together to form a union for the purpose of farming together to enable them enjoy some incentive from government. Such incentive may include loans, input supply like fertilizers, subsidies and easy disposal of their products through organized marketing.
Some characteristics of co-operative farming include:
- It is a union of farmers
- They may produce one type of crop or livestock
- They enjoy certain incentive from government e.g. land, reduced cast of inputs.
- It has organized markets for their products.
- Output is high because of resources put together by the farmers.