Ranching and Management of Cattle

Management of Cattle :

The management of cattle from breeding to market size can be grouped into three phases:
(a) From breeding to calving;
(b) From birth of calf to weaning

(c) from weaning to finishing (market size).
(a) Breeding to Calving or Birth:

Breeders (bulls and heifer or cow) are housed in the breeder houses made of railed walls, concrete floors and galvanized roofing sheets. Bulls and heifers should be at least 24 months old before they are bred. Prior to mating, the heifer or cow should be properly fed on concentrate as well as on roughages such as grasses. The bull is brought to mate or serve the cow when it is on heat.

The gestation period for cattle is about 283 days.

During the gestation period, the cow is allowed to feed in the ranch in order to take some exercises. About eight weeks to parturition (calving), the cow is put on a special (rich) diet to set all her organs in good order for milk production after birth. This special system is called steaming up.

parts of a cow
labeled parts of a cattle

Constipation should be avoided by giving the animal plenty of roughages and bran in the diet. The cow is separated from the rest of the herd and is taken to calving pen a week to calving. Adequate sanitation, comfortable beddings and clean water must be provided. At calving, the cow should not be disturbed. The cow normally stands while calving without any difficulty.

(b) Birth of Calf to Weaning: As soon as the calf is born, the mucus membrane should be wiped off from the nostril to facilitate normal breathing of the calf. The cord from the navel should be allowed to break on its own. The cow should also be allowed to lick up the mucus membrane on the calf body as the cow derives satisfaction from it. It also stimulates the cow’s circulatory system and milk letdown.

A tincture of iodine solution should be applied to the navel stump to prevent infection. The calf should be helped to take milk from the teat of the cow. This milk called colostrum should be taken for the first three days because colostrum provides (antibodies) immunity to the calf. It is also rich in proteins, minerals and vitamins.

If the farmer’s aim is to produce beef cattle, the calf is allowed to follow the dam and suckle it without restriction. The calf is left with the dam until the weaning time (six months). During this period, the calf is vaccinated against diseases like foot and mouth disease, rinderpest, anthrax, etc. The calf is also dewormed at regular intervals.

Another calf management is castration of the bull calf that is not going to be used for breeding. This helps to control indiscriminate mating. The calf is finally weaned and is separated from its mother when it is about six months of age.

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  14. migration
  15. population
  16. market concept
  17. money market
  18. shares
  19. how companies raises funds for expansion

WEED AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION

  1. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
    19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
    20. INCUBATORS
    21. MILKING MACHINE
    22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
    23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
    24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
    25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
    26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
    27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
    28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
    29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
    30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
    31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
    32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
    33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
    34. OIL PALM
    35. USES OF PALM OIL
    36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
    37. COCOA

38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE

fabioclass

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  7. economic tools for nation building
  8. budgeting
  9. factors affecting the expansion of industries
  10. mineral resources and the mining industries
  11. demand and supply
  12. types of demand curve and used
  13. advertising industry
  14. factors of production
  15. entrepreneur
  16. joint stock company
  17. public enterprises
  18. private enterprises
  19. limited liability companies
  20. migration
  21. population
  22. market concept
  23. money market
  24. shares
  25. how companies raises funds for expansion
  1. BALANCED DIETS
    141. LACTATION DIETS
    142. MALNUTRITION
  2. RINDER PESTS
    148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
    149. BACTERIA DISEASES
    150. ANTHRAX
    151. BRUCELLOSIS
    152. TUBERCULOSIS
    153. FUNGAL DISEASES
  3. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
    155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS

    159. TAPE WORM
    160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
    161. LIVER FLUKE
    162. ECTO PARASITES
    163. TICK

(c) Weaning to Finishing or Market Size: The calf just separated from the dam can now feed on concentrate feed as well as roughages (grasses) on its own. The calf is ‘also housed separately from the older cattle but in different building of the same design. However, semi-intensive system is the best method of rearing the calf till market size.
One other operation that can be performed on the calf is dehorning or disbudding.

Disbudding is the removal of the horn. Its advantages include: easy management of the cattle when they grow up as it reduces the risk of damage which horns can cause to the hides of animal, It also makes it safer to handle animal when inoculating or deworming. This can be done either by using a hot iron to burn out the horn bud, by applying caustic soda to the horn bud, or use of saw to cut it off if it is allowed to fully grow and later treat with iodine solution.
Another operation on the calf is branding or tattooing. Branding is done for the identification of the calf. This can be done by using hot iron to mark numbers on the animal skin, especially on the cheek or on the forelegs below the shank.

Tattooing is a practice whereby numerals and letters are formed from metal pins which are then pressed onto the ears of the animals. Both branding and tattooing are different methods that can be used for the identification of the cattle. Ear notching (small cuttings) on the ear can also be used for identification.

In order to achieve early market weight or size, the calf can be fattened up by placing it on a special diet of high concentrates and low roughages with restricted movement within the building, and by maintaining a high level of sanitation and health care through regular vaccination, deworming and dipping to control diseases and parasites.

  1. economic tools for nation building
  2. budgeting
  3. factors affecting the expansion of industries
  4. mineral resources and the mining industries
  5. demand and supply
  6. types of demand curve and used
  7. advertising industry
  8. factors of production
  9. entrepreneur
  10. joint stock company
  11. public enterprises
  12. private enterprises
  13. limited liability companies
  14. migration
  15. population
  16. market concept
  17. money market
  18. shares
  19. how companies raises funds for expansion

WEED AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION

  1. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
    19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
    20. INCUBATORS
    21. MILKING MACHINE
    22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
    23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
    24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
    25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
    26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
    27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
    28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
    29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
    30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
    31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
    32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
    33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
    34. OIL PALM
    35. USES OF PALM OIL
    36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
    37. COCOA

38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE

check out these recent posts

  1. loans for businesses
  2. how to establish enterprises
  3. what is a firm
  4. price equilibrium
  5. scale of preference
  6. concept of economics
  7. economic tools for nation building
  8. budgeting
  9. factors affecting the expansion of industries
  10. mineral resources and the mining industries
  11. demand and supply
  12. types of demand curve and used
  13. advertising industry
  14. factors of production
  15. entrepreneur
  16. joint stock company
  17. public enterprises
  18. private enterprises
  19. limited liability companies
  20. migration
  21. population
  22. market concept
  23. money market
  24. shares
  25. how companies raises funds for expansion
  1. BALANCED DIETS
    141. LACTATION DIETS
    142. MALNUTRITION
  2. RINDER PESTS
    148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
    149. BACTERIA DISEASES
    150. ANTHRAX
    151. BRUCELLOSIS
    152. TUBERCULOSIS
    153. FUNGAL DISEASES
  3. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
    155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS

    159. TAPE WORM
    160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
    161. LIVER FLUKE
    162. ECTO PARASITES
    163. TICK

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