public limited liability company or joint stock company 

            PUBLIC LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY OR JOINT STOCK COMPANY, A public limited liability company led as one which by its articles allows the public to subscribe for its shares, must have a turn of seven persons but no maximum number is prescribed, allows the shares to be transferred and the name of the public limited company must end with the abbreviation “plc”.

The word public is used to imply that any member of the public is free to purchase shares in the business when shares are advertised for sale. Public limited companies are actually led by private individuals and organizations

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JOINT STOCK COMPANY IS DIFFERENT FROM ITS OWNERS

Public limited liability companies or joint stock companies are organizations which have karate legal entity. It is regarded in law as having an identity of its own. The shareholders are not personally responsible for anything that is done in the name of the organisation.

The shareholders also enjoy limited liability, and above all, it enjoys the advantage of a large number of people who through the purchase of shares become owners of the company.

Examples of public limited liability companies (or joint stock companies) are: Zenith Bank Plc., Guinness Nig. Plc., First Bank Plc., Dunlop Nig. Plc., UTC Nig. Plc. and Texaco Nig. Plc.

FEATURES OR CHARACTERISTICS OF PUBLIC LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY OR JOINT STOCK COMPANY

  •  Ownership: The number of shareholders range from seven to infinity, i.e. owners must be at least seven but there is no maximum number.
  •  It is a legal entity: The joint stock company has a distinct personality from that of the owners. It can sue and be sued in its own name.

  •  Perpetual existence: The death or withdrawal of some shareholders will not affect the existence of the company. It enjoys continuous existence.

  •  It has limited liability: The liability of shareholders is limited to the amount contributed to the company. The private properties of the shareholders will not be touched in the event of liquidation.

  •  Formation: A public limited liability company must follow some special formalities before registration. They secure incorporation by filing the article of association and memorandum of association with the registrar of companies.

  •  Preparation of annual accounts: It is required by statute to keep certain prescribed books of account. The accounts must be           audited            and

published annually.

  •  Specific line of business: A public limited liability company is authorised by law to carry on business specified in the object clause.
  •  Ownership separated from management: Ownership is separated from management. The shareholders are regarded as the owners of the company while the management is in the hand of board of directors.

ADVANTAGES OF PUBLIC LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY OR JOINT STOCK COMPANY

  •  Legal entity: Public limited liability companies have legal existence. They have a distinct personality from the owners, hence they can sue and be sued in their own name.
  •  Perpetual existence: There is continuity in a joint stock company. The death or withdrawal of a shareholder cannot put an end to the business.
  •  Limited liability: Their liability is limited to the amount invested as capital in the business; private properties will not be affected.

  •  Large capital: They can raise enough capital by selling more shares or debentures to the public.
  •  Transferability of shares: Shares of a public limited liability company can easily be transferred without having an effect on business operation.

  •  Loan facilities: Many banks prefer to grant loans to public limited companies than other forms of business units be there is no likelihood of default in pay
  •  Economies of large scale product Public limited liability companies have sufficient capital for expansion, which: lead to mass production of goods.
  •  Democracy in management: choosing the board of directors shareholders have the right to vote ( voted for at the annual general meeting
  •  Owners are separated from management: In joint stock company owners are separated from manager
  • The shareholders are regarded as owners of the company while management is in the hands of board of directors.
  •  Employees can become co-owners: Employees could become co-owners of the business by purchasing shares in the company.

  •  Recruitment of experts: Joint stock company attracts men of ability and skill to work for it.
  •  Research programmes: In joint: Company, there is greater opportunity to undertake research programmes.

DISADVANTAGES OF PUBLIC LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY (OR JOINT STOCK COMPANY

  •  Lack of privacy: Public limited liability companies lack privacy because the mandated by law to publish their: audited accounts to the public. This makes it impossible for them to maintain se or privacy.
  •  Conflict of interest : There is the possibility of conflict of interest among the shareholders, directors and staff, which may affect the efficiency of operations of i business.

  • Slow decision making: Decision-making because of wider consultations and discussions in the management hierarchy.
  • Separation of owners from control: The owners of the business (shareholders) have little or no say in the affairs of the business, while the people at the helm of affairs who are not the owners may not put in their best.

  • Hard to establish: The procedures and formalities involved in registration are very bard and complicated.
  • Payment of large corporate tax: They are saddled with heavy tax burdens, arising from profit

declared.

  • Lack of flexibility: The company can only carry on business provided for it in its object

clause in the  memorandum of association. It cannot venture into any other type of business.

  • Decrease in personal interest: The type of interest exhibited in this type of company is

usually very low compared with the sole proprietorship where the zeal tad. interest is very high.

  • Large capital requirement: The capital required to set up and run a joint stock company  is usually very large.

SOURCES OF FINANCE OR CAPITAL AVAILABLE TO PUBLIC LIABILITY COMPANY OR JOINT STOCK COMPANY

  • Loans and overdraft: Joint stock company can obtain loans and overdraft from commercial or development banks.
  • Sales of shares: A joint stock company can also raise capital by issuing shares for public subscription.
  • Sales of debentures: These are long term loans obtained from the general public at a fixed interest.
  • Bill of exchange: This is a document duly signed by the debtor’s bank to the creditor and the creditor cashes the money with some discounts.
  • Equipment leasing: Public limited liability companies can lease out some of their equipment for money.
  • Retained (plough back) profits: The profits made by the company can be set aside for re-investment.
  • Trade credit: Raw materials can be purchased by the joint stock company on credit.
  • Hire purchase: Facilities can be granted to the company to buy and pay by installments