Pre-planting operations in agriculture ? pre-planting are operations in agriculture carried out before sowing. pre-planting operations in agriculture include choosing of site, clearing, stumping, plotting, ploughing, harrowing, and ridging. let me break down what pre-planting operations stands for. these are every physical farming activities put into the farm to prepare it for planting of crops or rearing of animals. pre-planting activities are some of the hardest aspect of farming,
What is Pre-planting operations in agriculture?
These are the farming activities carried out before planting is done. These activities are carried out to prepare and make the soil conducive for the crop to be planted.. read more about tillage operations here+. pre-planting operations can also start with farm survey and planning then into clearing activities. so down here let us take a look at the list of pre-planting (read details here) activities carried in the farm
list of pre-planting activities
Pre-planting operations in sequence are: selection of the site, surveying of the soil and land measurement, clearing, stumping, field plotting or farm layout, tilling or ridging, ploughing, harrowing, nursery and nursery practices.
maintenance of watering can
Choice of site during pre-planting operations in agriculture
The choice of a farm site is a part of the activities before planting.
This is guarded by:
(a) The nature of the land (Topography): This is, whether the land is hilly or level. A fairly level land should be chosen to reduce the cost of land preparation and erosion control problem.
(b) The type of soil: during pre-planting operation, This should be considered in the choice of farm site or location. This is because soil is the medium for plant growth and poor soil will produce poor yield.
problems facing pre-planting operations
(c) Availability of inputs such as labour and planting materials are very important during pre-planting activities: The workers to be employed that will work in the farm must be available in the area where the farm is to be located. Crop planting materials should also be available. The ease of transporting farm produce and sale also guard the choice of a farm site.
Clearing of site during pre-planting operations
The equipment used depends on the nature of the vegetation in the area. In the rain forest belt, cutlass may be required for brushing the under growth while axe, motor saw or chain saw and cutlass are used to fell the trees.
The trees are chopped into pieces. On large scale, bulldozer may be used to remove forest vegetation. during pre-planting operation, burning can be carried out on the cut under growths and plants, especially in the rain forest area. This helps to add ash which contains mineral used by the soil alkaline.
how Alkalinity of the soil leads to increase in nitrification process and available cation during pre-planting activities.
The remains of burnt plants are packed and re-burnt. The larger trunks are left to decay in case of small holding, but bulldozers may be used to push them off in the case of mechanized farming.
how to carry out Stumping during pre-planting operations in agriculture
This is the removal of plant stumps and roots from the soil, it is a tedious operation. The practice is usually, avoided in small scale private farms. Where crop rotation system is practiced, stumping is done. This is usually in school farms, government farms and corporate farms such as cutlass, axe, pick axe, mechanical stumper and bulldozer are used in stumping.
Plotting or laying out of the farm during pre-planting operation
The act of dividing the farm land into sections is called plotting or laying out. This is usually based on the report of soil survey. during the practice of pre-planting operation, Soil survey shows the nature of the land (Topography). Soil types nutrients status, soil and water conservation methods to be sued on the land. It also shows where to lacate the various farm stead.
how Plotting can be done during pre-planting operations
read land survey here
How to use the 3-4-5 metric method in farm plotting: Erect a pole at about the centre of the farmland.
From the pole A, take a base line AB 4m long with a string tied to the pole. Tie another string 3m long to the pole at A and extend to C. A third string 5m long is also tied to pole B and is extended to meet pole C thereby forming a triangle with a right angle at A.
arrange poles along the line AB to the end of the farm.
The same is done to the side line AC. Ensure that you sight them to give straight lines. The length and breadth of the farm so measured will make it easy to divide the land like in the case of (land tenure system) into plots. Paths are used to demarcate the land into blocks.
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WEED AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUGRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGES
8. CROP ROTATION
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE