types of poultry management systems

types of poultry management systems. the word poultry refers to all birds that man has been able to rear through the years. he has decided to rear or cultivate them due to their financial fee to him. such birds encompass:

(a) hen or bird
(b) turkey
(c) duck
(d) guinea chicken
(e) pigeon
(f) geese
(g) ostriches

(h) recreation birds, e.g. parrot.
what is chicken?
the word chicken refers to all birds that man has been able to rear through the years. he has decided to rear or cultivate them due to their financial fee to him. such birds encompass:

 poultry management

(a) hen or bird
animal husbandry is the artwork of domesticating animals in an in depth form. in word animal husbandry is the farming types wherein the farmer rears especially animals both for own family intake or for business purposes. in this text we shall keep in mind some of the most important animals. in animal husbandry the subsequent types of animals are broadly kept, they are

1 poultry

what is chicken in poultry management?

the word chicken refers to all birds that man has been able to rear through the years. he has decided to rear or cultivate them due to their financial fee to him. such birds encompass:

(a) hen or bird

(b) turkey

(c) duck

(d) guinea chicken

(e) pigeon

(f) geese

(g) ostriches

(h) recreation birds, e.g. parrot.

importance of chicken in poultry management:

fowl gives the subsequent:

  1. money – through the sale of eggs and its meat
  2. eggs – supply of protein

three. meat (chicken) – supply of protein

four. feathers – for making excessive quality pillows and mattresses dropping and it’s miles very rich in plant vitamins.

five. poultry manure (guano) – this is received from the birds dropping and it’s far very rich in plant vitamins

  1. sport – some birds which include the parrot and cocks are used for video games.

few phrases associated with hen

cock – grownup male chicken

drake – adult male duck

guinea cock – male guinea fowl

gander – grownup male geese

tom – adult male turkey

fowl – adult female chicken

duck – adult male duck

guinea bird – guinea fowl

goose – grownup geese

turkey chicken – female turkey

chick – a younger chick

duckling – a young duck

guinea chick – a young guinea chick

gosling – a younger ducks

proult – a young turkey

layer – a laying hen

broiler -a meat producing bird

cockerel-younger male chick

pullet- young female chicken

capon-a castrated cock

management of home chick

distinct breeds of home fowls consist of:

(a) Rhode island purple (r.i.r)

(b) Plymouth rock

(c) harco

(d) white leghorn

(e) brown leghorn

(f) babcocks

(g) ancina

(h) Cornish dark

(i) mild Sussex

(j) white wyandotte

(k) native chick, etc

fowls may be managed for any of the purposed stated underneath:

(i) egg production (layers)

(ii) meat manufacturing (broilers)

(iii) twin motive: in this case, the fowls are breed for both meat and eggs.

however, the management practices for all birds in animal husbandry, whether reared for meat or eggs have a few similarities which incorporates

however no longer restrained to the subsequent:

poultry management housing:

the dimensions of the house relies upon at the population of the birds. the muse must be made of solid blocks with concrete ground. the wall need to be made of strong blocks with concrete. the wall have to be brief for true ventilation and good enough supply of light. cord mesh must be used to complete the fast partitions upwards to the roofing stage.

in animal husbandry, care ought to be taken in making sure that each one holes are included upwards to the roof. that is to prevent lizards, snakes, rats and wild birds from getting into the house as their presence will disturb the fowls.

the most common types of roofs used in fowl buildings are:

(i) lean-to-roof or shed:
this is illustrated underneath:

on final touch of the constructing, a mini gutter have to be built around the whole fowl building close to the out of doors partitions and this is a superb practice in animal husbandry. Izal or other disinfectants ought to be used with water and poured into this gutter regularly. this is to save you and vermin from getting into the rooster house.

furthermore in animal husbandry, a wider clip ought to be constructed at the entrance of the residence. the attendant in addition to traffic are required to dip their legs inside the disinfected water within the dip before moving into the rooster residence. that is to prevent ailment or germs from being taken into the residence.


systems of fowl control

fowls can be managed underneath any of the subsequent systems:


intensive systems:

beneath this device or system, birds are reared continuously inside an inner construction. there are three primary sorts of extensive control:

(i) deep litter system

(ii) battery cage mechanism

(iii) slate or wire floor system.


deep litter gadget:

in this gadget a concrete floor is made in the chicken residence and noticed dust or wood shavings are used to cover the floor. feeding and ingesting troughs are organized at appropriate pistes at the floor. in case of laying birds, laying nests have to be supplied on one facet of the floor.

advantages of deep litter machine fowl control in poultry management

  1. it’s miles in your price range seeing that minimum equipment are wanted.
  2. manufacturing of ammonia from the decomposition of the muddle assist in tin- manipulate of coccidiosis.

three. the birds have sufficient space for exercising.

four. there is simple manage of flies because it within reason dry.

  1. the muddle allows to soak up the droppings from the birds thereby lowering the offensive odour.

disadvantages of deep muddle system of chicken control

  1. cannibalism may additionally arise
  2. illnesses and parasites are without difficulty unfold

three. excessive fee of building the house

four. eggs are typically dirty wherein layers are reared below this system

battery system:

battery gadget of chicken control is a type of in depth rooster management system. in this extensive management gadget, cord, cages are used to enclose the birds in a residence, each cage can accommodate to 4 birds relying on the dimensions of the cage.

advantages of battery system of poultry management

  1. presents higher lodging
  2. elimination of inner parasites because the droppings are accumulated under the cages
  3. unwell birds are effortlessly identified i or treatment

four. egg production is better

  1. records can without problems he saved
  2. eggs are usually very clean or neat.

advantages of battery system of hen control

  1. it’s miles luxurious to construct the house and purchase the cages.
  2. the eggs may destroy if slope of mesh is just too step.
  3. there may be high labour cost.

(iii) slate or cord floor machine: that is made raised walls. the birds are saved in the slated or stressed ground. the droppings which can be deposited beneath are accrued for disposal sometimes.

benefits of the slate floor machine of poultry management

  1. there is no clutter required
  2. there may be control of infection due to the fact birds d droppings.

three. eggs cleaning is wanted.

hazards of the slate or wire gadget of poultry management

  1. lower egg production
  2. layers are liable to nervousness

three. there may be cannibalism.

  1. tremendous or free variety machine

this is the conventional gadget of hen maintaining inside the tropics. in the loose range system, the fowls are allowed to move freely in a wide location. if excessive land is to be had, this device poses no troubles. birds reared under the free variety of substantial machine discover meals for themselves. they’re commonly furnished accommodation at night time.

advantages of free range system:

  1. the fee of feeding the birds is pretty low.
  2. there’s no value for housing the birds.

three. the birds can pass approximately freely. they’re consequently healthier due to their consistent sporting events.

four. the birds have get admission to to natural meals which includes insects and veggies

disadvantages of free range system

  1. there’s risk of pests, hawks, snakes, wild animals and thieves.
  2. there’s threat of twist of fate in view that vehicles can kill the birds.

three. there’s low egg production.

four. the birds are commonly small in size as they use their power to move about searching for meals and water.

  1. they are able to effortlessly settlement sickness from different birds.
  2. statistics are difficult to maintain.

semi-intensive system

the birds below this are kept in cages, poultry runs product of cord netting. the birds flow approximately inside the runs for the duration of the day to fend for themselves. they come to sleep within the constructing at night or for the duration of negative weather conditions consisting of immoderate heat or rain. see the diagram beneath:



cord fence run

semi-extensive system of rearing birds.

advantages of the system

  1. there may be enough area for the birds to move approximately.
  2. the birds have access to green veggies
  3. the pasture growing in the region will do properly due to the dropping from the birds

four. the birds are protected towards predators which include snakes

disadvantages of the system

  1. the fee of creating cord fences is high.
  2. birds won’t be totally included from predators which include hawks
  3. there is hazard of parasite build up and ailment out damage.

(c) control practices: the management practices for fowl production can be dealt with underneath the comply with ing headings:

(i) egg dealing with: fertile eggs are amassed from the breeding liens and looked after out. the faulty ones are removed even as the feasible ones are taken to the incubator for hatching.

(ii) incubation: that is a technique regarding the improvement and hatching of eggs, to provide chicks. the mom fowl commonly incubates her egg obviously by using silting at the eggs. but the range of eggs hatched without delay by means of a chicken below this technique is constrained. as a result massive hatching machines referred to as incubators have been devised to hatch very big numbers of eggs.

all situations in the incubators are thermostatically controlled. the temperature is stored at 38v. relative humidity • 64%. oxygen – 21%. carbon (iv) oxide – 0.5%. the eggs are then grew to become often inside the incubator so that each one aspects arc exposed to the incubator situations and to prevent chicks from sticking to the shells.

candling is completed to identity the infertile eggs. this is executed at the sixth and 18th day of the egg’s live in the incubator. candling ensures that every one hatch-able egg are hatched.

the eggs are generally geared up for hatching after 21 days stav within the incubator.

when the chicks were hatched, they’re sexed (separation into males and females) earlier than being taken to the brooder house,

(iii) chick brooding: this includes taking care ol the day-old chicks until they’re about four weeks and then the management practices could change.

the brooder residence is usually use used to rear day antique chicks

brooding is the method of providing the herbal conditions of the mother chick in artificial manner.

chick drinking and feeding troughs should be properly arrange within the brooder residence. sources of warmth should be supplied to up the room. extra heat need to be averted. the chicks inside the brooder house will tell the farmer whether or not the heat is an excessive amount of or too low.

if the birds cluster collectively across the source of heat then the heat it too low. whilst most of the birds flow a ways away from the source of heat it shows that the temperature is simply too excessive. in both instances, the

farmer ought to regulate the temperature as is necessary.

water and feed have to be furnished to the chicks inside the brooder house (that is, as much as they need).

on the end of 4 weeks, the birds ought to be removed from the the brooder residence and reared underneath the necessary gadget in advance on in this unit. whatever device is used to rear the birds, hygiene, adequate feed and water supply, sickness and pest control should accept precedence.

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    161. LIVER FLUKE
    163. TICK

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