okra (abelmoscus esculentus)

OKRA (Abelmoscus esculentus) what is okra? Okra is also a vegetable crop commonly grown by local farmers in West Africa. The fruits called capsule, read types of fruits here. When young, they are harvested with knife and used in soup preparation.

Land preparation for the planting of Okra

The bush is cleared with cutlass while ridges or heaps are constructed with hoes. Alternatively, the land can be prepared by ploughing, harrowing and ridging.

Varieties/Cultivars of Okra

New lady’s finger and the Perkin’s long pod.
Climatic and soil requirements: Okra requires a temperature of 18CC – 30C, rainfall of 100cm – 150cm per annum and a well-drained loamy soil.


Method of propagation of Okra

By seeds

Planting date for Okra. Early April and May.
Spacing: 60cm x 60cm.

method of Planting: Seeds are planted directly into beds, two to three seeds per hole which should be 3cm deep. Germination occurs as from the 5th day after planting.

Cultural Practices the cultivation of Okra

(i) Thinning and supplying: These can be done where necessary.
(ii) Fertilizer application: Super phosphate fertilizer at 100kg/hectare is required. Ring application is used.
(iii) Weeding: This should be done regularly.

Maturity period of Okra

:This occurs between three and seven
Harvesting: The young and succulent green immature fruits are plucked or harvested with knife. Harvesting is done over a long period of time.

Processing of Okra

: The fruits are used as food.

Storage method: The fresh fruits are stored in a cool place, e.g. refrigerator or the dried ones are stored in sacks.

Okra farm
Pests of Okra, symptoms and control methods

(1) Flea beetles: These insects attack the plants and eat up the leaves. read about biting and chewing insects here. This they do by putting holes on the leaves as they eat them.
Control: Spray with insecticides
(2) Cricket and grasshopper: These insects also defoliate the plant by eating up the leaves and young stems
Control: Spray with insecticides


Diseases of Okra, symptoms and control

(1) Root knot disease: It is caused by eelworm nematode which is found in the soil. read animal pests of crop here
Symptoms: Symptoms include knotting or galling of roots, retarded growth and reduced yield.
(i) Practice crop rotation
(ii) Use resistant varieties
(iii) Treat soil with nematicide e.g. Nemagon

(2) Mosaic disease: It is caused by a virus which is transmitted by piercing and sucking insects. Symptoms include mosaic colouration on the leaves, leading to low yield of the crop.

(i) Spray with insecticide to kill vector
(ii) Uproot and burn infected plants



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      In summary, the entrepreneur is the person who co-ordinates, controls and organizes the process of production in order to make maximum output at minimum cost thereby making profits. He is the M.D or CEO in an executive office. The reward for entrepreneur is profit.

Characteristics of entrepreneur

Risk bearer: he risks his capital in the course of investment and whatever comes out of it, whether good or bad, he has to take.

Organization: he organizes productive resources for the production of goods and services.

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