classes of food and food substances

classes of food and what are they? Food is any substance which when taken into the body of living organism is capable of maintaining growth and development. It regulates the body functions and controls harmful or dangerous substances that might enter into the body.

NUTRITION IN ANIMALS. On this topic, you will learn about
What is food substance
List the types of heterotrophic nutrition
Types of mammalian teeth
Feeding mode of the holozoic mode of nutrition
What makes a balanced diet
The structure of the mammalian dentition
Mode of feeding in Amoeba
The digestive system of Amoeba
The digestive system of cockroach, grasshopper and birds

 Dentition mode of nutrition

FOOD SUBSTANCES

What is a food substance?
Food substances refers to the materials or substances as food eaten by animals to energy needed to carry out survival activities.
These food substances are carbohydrates, protein, mineral salts, fats and oil, water and roughages.

types of feeds in agriculture

living organisms need food for their survival and daily activities. Plants can manufacture their own food through a process called photosynthesis, hence they are called autotrophs. On the other hand, animals cannot manufacture their own food so they solely depends on food manufactured by the plants, hence they are called heterotrophs.

Animals sometimes are classified according the type of food they eat or mode of nutrition. On these bases, animals are classified in the following categories

CARNIVOROUS ANIMALS OR CARNIVORES TYPE OF NUTRITION

These groups of animals mainly feed on flesh that is to say feed on other animals. Animals in these group are lion, dog, lizard, snake and cat.

HERBIVOROUS ANIMALS TYPE NUTRITION

OMNIVOROUS ANIMALS TYPE OF NUTRITION

These group of animals feed on plants and animals. In most cases, they can eat anything edible. Examples of these are man, man and pig

WHAT ARE THE CLASSES OF FOOD SUBSTANCES

All the food eaten or taken by animals can be classified or divided into seven groups. These food substances are
i. CARBOHYDRATES
ii. PROTEIN
iii. FATS AND OIL
iv. MINERAL SALTS
v. WATER AND ROUGHAGES
vi. VITAMINS

CARBOHYDRATES CLASSES OF FOOD

  • Carbohydrate is made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is 2:1 as in the case with water. They have a general formula of Cx(HxOx)
    SOURCES OF CARBOHYDRATES,
    THE MAIN SOURCES OF CARBOHYDRATE INCLUDES YAM, CASAVA, POTATO, RICE, MILLET AND BREAD.

TYPES OF CARBOHYDRATES

There are three types of carbohydrates, they are
1. MONOSACCHARIDES OR SIMPLE SUGARS
They are the simplest sugars and have only one unit of simple sugars are represented by the formula C6H12O6, examples are glucose, fructose and galactose.

  1. DISACCHARIDES OR REDUCING SUGARS
    THESE CONTAIN TWO UNITS OF SIMPLE SUGARS AND ARE REPRESENTED BY THE FORMULA C12H12O12. EXAMPLES ARE SUCROSE, MALTOSE AND LACTOSE
  2. POLYSACCHARIDES COMPLEX SUGARS
    These consists of more than two simple sugars or at least more than three simple sugars joined together. They are represented by the general formula (C6 H10O5)n, where n represent a large number. Examples are starch, cellulose, chitin and glycogen are all classes of food

EXCESS CARBOHYDRATE IS STORED IN THE BODY AS GLYCOGEN-ANIMAL FATS IN THE MUSCLES AND LIVER, WHICH CAN BE CONVERTED BACK TO GLUCOSE DURING STARVATION

maize

IMPORTANCE OF CARBOHYDRATES

The various importance of carbohydrates are listed in the following ways
i. Carbohydrate provides energy required by animals for daily activities
ii. Carbohydrate provides heat during its oxidation, used in maintaining the body temperature
iii. Carbohydrates are used in some ways to build body parts like the exoskeleton of arthropods
iv. Mucus which an important lubricant in our bodies, is made up of carbohydrates

PROTEIN CLASSES OF FOOD SUBSTANCES

Proteins are complex molecules and are made of smaller units called amino acids. Proteins has to be digested to AMINO ACIDS before they can be absorbed into the bodies of animals.
The breaking down of proteins during digestion takes place in the following ways or stages
Protein ====peptones====polypeptides===amino acids

COMPOSITION OF PROTEIN

Protein is composed of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and most often phosphorus and sulphur.

SOURCES OF PROTEIN

Animal sources of proteins are milk, egg, fish, cheese, meat and chicken
Plant sources of protein are beans, groundnut and soya-beans

IMPORTANCE OF PROTEIN

i. Protein is used for the growth of the young ones
ii. Protein is used for the repair of worn-out tissues of the body or cells
iii. Proteins aids reproduction
iv. Protein is used for the production of enzymes
v. Protein is also used for the production of hormones
vi. Protein is used for tissue and cell formation which then results in body building or growth

FATS AND OIL TYPE OF CLASSES FOOD

Fats and oil are also called LIPIDS. Fats are solid lipids at room temperature. They are hydrolyzed during digestion of fatty acids and glycerol which can be absorbed into the lymphatic system.

COMPOSITION OF FATS AND OIL
Fats and oil are composed of carbon, hydrogen and little oxygen

SOURCES OF FATS AND OIL. The major sources of fats and oil are palm oil, soya bean oil, melon oil, groundnut, butter, lard, margarine and cheese and fish oil

IMPORTANCE OF FATS AND OIL
The importance of fats and oil as classes of food are as follows
i. Fats and oil provides more energy to animals than carbohydrates
ii. Fats supply essential fatty acids to animals
iii. Fats and oil provides fat soluble vitamins
iv. Fats and oil help in the maintenance of body temperature

MINERAL SALTS
Not with general view but with definite accuracy, animals need or require various mineral salts for metabolic activities within the body.
Except for sodium chloride which is table salt, and a few medicines like iron tablets which can be taken directly by man, other mineral salts are usually taken in minute quantity through the food we eat. Lack of any of these minerals in a certain degree, will result in nutritional deficiency.

CLASSES OF MINERAL SALTS
The various classes of mineral salts include the following
i. Calcium
ii. Phosphorus
iii. Magnesium
iv. Potassium
v. Sulphur
vi. Sodium
vii. Chlorine
viii. Iron
ix. Iodine
x. Manganese
xi. Fluorine
xii. Copper and
xiii. Cobalt

Here is a chat of the sources, functions, deficiency and symptoms of any of the afore mentioned mineral salts

MINERAL
CALCIUM
Sources===== MILK, CHEESE, EGG AND FISH

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