nomadic farming is essentially the movement of the herdsman and his flock from one place to another, in search of food and water. It can also be a movement away from areas of pest and disease infestation. For example, the Fulani nomadic farmers move their stock from the Northern part of Nigeria toward the Southern part, in search of water and green grass, where they can feed during the dry season when the grasses in the North must have dried up.
Reasons for Movement of Herdsmen Southwards during Dry Season
i. Abundance of forage in the south but scarcity of forage in the north because of the unequal rainfall distribution in the dry season.
ii. Water scarcity in the north during the dry season forces them to move their animals southwards in search of water.
Problems associated with the movement of herdsmen
(i) Exposes animals to natural hazards.
(ii) Death of animals due to fatigue of traveling long distance.
(iii) Movement of animals causes destruction of the soil structure (compaction).
(iv) New diseases are easily introduced into another area.
(v) Indiscriminate mating in the herds leading to the transmission of undesirable traits.
(vi) Diseases spread easily within the herds.
(vii) Animals cause damage to cultivated crops along their route. read animal pests here
(viii) Damage to crops brings about serious conflict/clashes between the herdsmen and local farmers
(i) It exposes the herdsmen to dangers such as extremes of climatic conditions, wild animals, diseases and armed banditry attacks.
(x) New pests are easily introduced into another area.
(xi) It encourages cattle rustling.
(xii) Neglect of formal education for the children of herdsmen.
Solutions to the problems of the herdsmen movement
(i) Provision of adequate security against theft.
(ii) Disease/pest-resistant animals should be reared.
(iii) Provision of nomadic schools in strategic locations.
(iv) Provision of irrigation facilities during the dry season in the north/Savannah region to help in the artificial pastures.
(v) Establishment of grazing reserves at strategic locations in the north by government, which is ranching.
(vi) Preservation of fodder which are in abundance in the south into hay and silage and transported to the north during the dry season.
(vii) Provision of cattle tracks/paths for easy passage of herds to prevent destruction of crops along their route.
(viii) Castration of animals with undesirable traits long before the journey.
(ix) Payment of compensation for damage caused to crops.
(x) Both herdsmen and animals should be vaccinated regularly.
ADVANTAGES of nomadic farmers
The movement of the stock enables the animals feed (types of feeds) in areas where water and food are available, thereby preventing the animals from starvation and death
Disadvantages of nomadic farming
i. Very poor quality and undersized animals are produced
ii. There is no pasture management
iii. No regular supply of food and water
iv. Animals are exposed to injuries, pests, diseases and death
v. The herdsmen are equally exposed to all sorts of danger and death
vi. Clashes often occur between the herdsmen and crop farmers during migration and grazing when animals graze and destroy crops.
- IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION