SYSTEMS OF REARING PIGS
There are three systems of rearing pigs. These are Extensive, Semi-intensive and Intensive systems.
(1) Extensive system: In this system, pigs are allowed to roam about and fend themselves. This system has little or no capital investment and the cost of production is low. However disease incidence of worm infestations are very high. The animals are exposed to adverse weather conditions.
2) Semi-intensive system: In this system, housing is provided for the animals and they are allowed to move out to feed on natural vegetation. Paddocks are provided around the house which is fenced. Wallows and shades are also provided. The animals are allowed to move about, thereby exercising themselves to prevent fat built-up in the body. The system needs less capital investment but the labour requirement, disease incidence and parasite infestations are slightly high. Concentrate feeds are also provided.
(3) Intensive system: All the pigs are confined within a building and are not allowed to move out. The pigs are raised inside the pens on either concrete or iron slated floor.
Feeds, water and medications are supplied daily in adequate quantity and good sanitation is maintained. The system saves labour, provides conditions for good management standards and easy control of internal parasites. There is also protection from extremes of climate, predators and thieves. The feed efficiency is high, thus the growth rate is also very high. The system requires high capital investment in terms of building and feeding.
(i) Pig houses are sheds which provide shelter against harsh weather as well as provide proper hygiene conditions required to maintain healthy growth of the animals.
(ii) Pig house should be constructed along the direction of the wind but should be far from residential areas.
(iii) Pig house should have low walls made with bricks, stones or concrete cement with low walls to allow free flow of air.
(iv) The floor should be hard, impervious to water but easy to clean. It should be cement concrete, iron on concrete slabs.
(v) The floor should slope towards the drains with a gradient of 1:40, to ease cleaning. The surface of the floor should be slightly rough to prevent pigs from slipping.
(vi) The roof should be made from either asbestos, galvanized iron or aluminum sheets
(vii) All pens, except farrowing pens, are constructed the same way, with the provision of feeders and drinkers.
(viii) Farrowing pens in addition to the feeders and drinkers should have rail guards so as to prevent the sow from lying over the piglets.
(ix) The farrowing pens should also have creep area where the food of the piglets are kept. Such partition prevents the sow from eating up the nutritious food for the piglets.
(i) Feed cost represents 70-80% of total cost of producing swine.
(ii) Feeds given to all categories of pigs should be balanced in nutrients, i.e. it should contain all nutrients required for growth and production.
(iii) Breeder’s mash (15% protein) should be fed to breeders to prevent body fat deposition but keep them thrifty.
(iv) Flushing of the breeder should be done 7 to 10 days before breeding and maintained until the animals are bred. Flushing is the process by which the feed intake of the gilt or sow is increased so that it can produce more eggs or ova and consequently more number of fertilized eggs or ova and large litters or piglets.
(v) Pregnant or in-sows should not be overfed during gestation period to prevent fat deposition which leads to small litter sixe and difficulty in parturition
(vi) Laxatic diet, rich in high fibres (grasses) should be given to in-sows to aid easy parturition and lactation
(vii) The young piglets should be given creep feed (22%) protein as from two weeks of age to promote rapid growth of the piglets.
(viii) As soon as the piglets are weaned, they should be given weaners’ mash which contains about 18% protein for about 14weeks at an average rate of 1kg for a pig per day
(ix) The pigs are also fed on fattener’s mash (14% protein) during the fattening stage when pigs do not require high proteinous feed. The pigs are fed at an average rate of 2kg per pig in a day till they reach market weight of 6- 90kg at seven months of age
(x) Pigs being omnivorous animals can feed on kitchen wastes, grasses, remains of hotel food and other by-products of brewery and dry wastes.
Common sanitary measures to be adopted in pig farm include:
(i) Clean pig pens regularly by scrubbing the floors
(ii) Disinfect the pig house at regular intervals to make it germ-free
(iii) Clean the feeders and watering troughs to prevent contamination
(iv) Isolate any sick animal for treatment
(v) Remove and bury dead animals
(vi) Deworm the pigs with drugs and vaccinate them against diseases
HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM
77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
115. MAMMARY GLAND
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM
PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION
127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
133. PROTEIN FATS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
153. FUNGAL DISEASES
154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES