mechanism of transportation in animals


In higher animals, like mammals, the blood is made to circulate around the body by the pumping action of the heart through the blood vessels like the arteries, veins and capillaries. mechanism of transportation in higher animals

Mammals exhibit double circulation, blood passes through the heart twice every time it makes on complete movement around the body.

Higher animals, including mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians, possess various mechanisms of transportation to move from one place to another.

These mechanisms enable them to explore their environment, find food, escape predators, and seek mates. The primary modes of transportation in higher animals include:


there are two different  mechanism of transportation or circulation

In other words, there are two different circulations in the mechanism of transportation These are pulmonary and systemic circulation. in some cases, they can be known as open and closed circulation

Types of Circulation in higher animals=== MECHANISM OF TRANSPORTATION

The circulatory system in which the blood flows as a part of a mechanism of transportation,   only once through the heart for every complete circuit around the body is spoken of as a single circulation.

This type of circulation is found in fish, insects and other arthropods. In higher vertebrates, including most amphibians and all reptiles, the blood passes through the heart twice in one full circuit around the body.

The blood from the heart is pumped into the lungs where it returns to the heart before it is finally repumped to the body. This is spoken.

of as a double circulation. To prevent the mixing of deoxygenated and oxygenated blood, the heart is divided into the right and left sides.

The right side deals with deoxygenated blood and the left side with oxygenated blood. The heart is further divided into the upper and lower chambers, the atrium and the ventricle.

In insects, the only blood vessel as such is a single long tubular heart which extends through the thorax and abdomen and is expanded in each segment to form a small chamber pierced by a pair of Ostia.

In this case, the heart may be regarded as one-
chambered as there are no atria or ventricles, In fish, the heart contains one atrium and one ventricle and is said to be two-chambered

In amphibians and reptiles, the hearts are not fully divided into right and left halves, rather there are two atria but only one ventricle.

is four-chambered and has two atria and two ventricles==== mechanisms of transportation

Pulmonary circulation as a  mechanism of transportation
during the pulmonary circulation, blood is taken from the heart to the lungs through the pulmonary artery and taken back to the heart through the pulmonary vein.

The role of this circulation is to oxygenate the blood and remove carbon dioxide from the blood in the lungs.

Systemic blood circulation as mechanism of transportation:

this circulation takes the blood (oxygenated blood) from the heart to all parts of the body through the arteries and sends the blood back to the heart through the veins.

The role of systemic circulation is to transport products of digestion, oxygen, water, hormones and other substances to all parts of the body and collect excretory products like water, urea, carbon dioxide and mineral salts from the cells of the body to organs that will excrete them.

The Contribution of the Mammalian Blood Circulatory System

Exchange of gases in higher animals

the gases involved in this process are oxygen and carbon dioxide. The blood system has many capillaries in close contact with the air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs.

The thin wall of capillaries and air sacs enables oxygen to be exchanged for carbon dioxide through the process of diffusion.

Also, in the tissues, carbon dioxide is exchanged with oxygen. The continuous circulation of blood ensures the diffusion of oxygen into the blood and carbon dioxide out of the blood in the lungs— mechanism of transportation

Absorption of digested food in higher animals

the digested food materials are absorbed by the villi of the small intestine. The mesenteric arteries take the food from the small intestine to the liver through the hepatic portal vein.

The liver then regulates the amount of food going into the blood. The blood then transports these food materials to the capillaries of tissues and organs. With the aid of the lymph, the food substances diffuse into the cells.


Removal of excretory products in higher animals

in the mechanism of transportation in higher animals, the blood is able to collect excretory products like urea, nitrogenous materials, carbon dioxide, and water from the cells by simple diffusion. The waste products are then transported to the various organs like the skin, liver, lungs, and kidneys from where they are removed from the body.

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