manufacturing and construction industries
- Manufacturing Industry
Definition: Manufacturing industry refers to the turning of raw materials into new products by mechanical or chemical processes at home (cottage) or in the factory.
In other words, manufacturing industry is concerned with the activities of those who engaged in processing and turning raw materials produced in the primary industry into finished products. The raw materials or natural resources are transformed into finished products after going through different processes to add value and utility. Examples of manufacturing industries are shoe making, food processing, plastic processing and textile processing.
- Construction Industry
Definition: Construction industry s concerned with all the activities of those who engage in assembling of goods manufactured into usable form. They convert manufactured products into various uses. They engage in construction of roads, bridges and houses.
All the various components that are extracted and manufactured are converted into useable forms through construction.
Examples of construction industries are:
- Road construction
- Building construction
- Airport construction
- Bridge construction
- Furniture construction
CHARACTERISTICS OF MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES
- Nigerian manufacturing industries rely on imported skilled labour from foreign countries
- Most industries also depend on foreign countries for their raw materials.
- They do not easily source their raw materials from within the country.
- Industries are concentrated in few locations, especially in urban centers.
- Most manufacturing industries are mainly light industries
- These industries are also labour force to operate.
- Emphasis is on production of consumer goods.
- Their produces are mainly consumed in the local markets.
- Manufacturing industries are largely small scale.
CLASSIFICATION OF MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES
(a) Light industries
- These are secondary industries which produce relatively light weight goods such as matches, television sets, fans, books and pencils.
- They employ the services of mainly women
- They produce final or consumable goods.
- They are found mainly in Tropical African countries e.g. Nigeria and Ghana.
(b) Consumer Goods industries
- The industries deal with the turning of raw materials into consumable goods.
- They are normally located in cities e.g. Lagos, Ibadan and Kaduna.
(c) Heavy Industries
- They are also secondary industries.
- Products are heavy or bulky
- They employ the services of mainly males.
- Examples include metallurgical petroleum and ship building industries.
- However, heavy industries are commonly found in Lagos, Ibadan and Kaduna
Differences between Heavy and Light Industries
Heavy and light industries differ from one another in a number of ways. These include:
- Heavy industries are usually large – scale in nature while light industries are relatively small in plants and products.
- The products of heavy industries are usually heavy e.g. ships, aeroplanes, iron and steel while products of light industries are light e.g. cigarettes, bread, razor blade and office pins.
- Usually the turnover of heavy industry is heavy, while it is small in light industries.
- Heavy industries employ the services of more males while light industries may employ the services of more females than males.
Industries can also be classified into primary, secondary and tertiary industries.
- Primary Industries
- These industries are concerned with the extraction of raw materials provided by nature
- They are also called extractive industries
- Examples are mining, fishing, lumbering, farming and livestock production
- Secondary Industries
- These industries turn raw materials into consumable or finished goods
- Examples are construction, building, textile, ship building, iron and steel and chemical industries.
- Tertiary Industries
- These are concerned with the rendering of services.
- It could be direct services like trading, banking, teaching, medical and transportation.
- It could also be indirect services like the job of police, custom, soldiers and navy.
41.5 LOCAL CRAFT (COTTAGE) INDUSTRIES IN NIGERIA
Local craft or cottage industries are those types of industries that depend mainly on raw materials obtained from their immediate locality. They use simple tools and their work is of high artistic quality. These local craft industries are:
- Leather works: For example, Sandals, cushions, handbags. They are mostly found in Kano, Bida and Sokoto.
- Wood carving: This is done in Ikot, Ekpene, Uyo, Oyo and Benin City.
- Brass and silver works: These are done in Bida, Benin and Kano.
- Ropes and mat making: These are done in Ikot Ekpene, Warri and Kano
- Textile / Cloth weaving: These are done in Akweate, Okene, Kano and Iseyin
- Pottery and glass making: These are done in Ikot – Ekpene, Bida, Illorin and Calabar
41.6 FACTORY OR MODERN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES IN NIGERIA
Modern manufacturing industries in Nigeria are grouped into four major industrial zones. These zones are:
- The Western Industrial Zone: This zone is located in the western part of Nigeria or west of River Niger. Important industrial towns include Lagos, Ibadan, Sango Otta, Abeokuta, Epe, Apapa, Ewekoro and Oshogbo.
- The south East Industrial Zone: This is located in the eastern part of Nigeria or east of River Niger, Important industrial towns include Nkalagu, Onitsha, port – Harcourt, Enugu, Aba, Owerri and Calabar.
- The North – Central Industrial Zone: This zone is located in the northern part of Nigeria or north of Rivers Niger and Benue. Important industrial towns include Kano, Kaduna, Jos and Zaria.
- The Mid – West Industrial Zone: This zone is found in the former Bendel State of the present Edo and Delta States which are also located in the west of River Niger. Important industrial towns include Warri, Benin, Sapele and Ughelli.
CONTRIBUTIONS OF INDUSTRIAL SECTOR TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
Industrial sector has contributed greatly to the economic development of all nations in the following ways:
- Increase in Gross National product (GNP): Industrial sector through its operations like payment of taxes increases the earnings accruing to the nation.
- Employment opportunities: Industries provide employment (Jobs) for many people.
- International trade Improves Trade Balance: Most of the products of manufacturing industries like machinery are usually from western nations. This forms the basis for international trade and it improves trade balance between countries.
- Simulation of other sectors: Industrial sector does stimulate the growth of other sectors like agriculture, mining and lumbering.
- Control inflation due to mass production: With modern technology, products like cars, machinery, etc. can be mass produced. This can help to reduce inflation.
- Infrastructural development: The establishment of an industry in a place stimulates the development of infrastures like road, telephone, electricity and pipe borne water.
- Diversification of the economy: The industrial sector helps different countries to prevent over dependence on only one product like the present Nigeria’s over dependence on only one product like the present Nigeria’s over dependence on crude oil. If Nigeria can invest in the industrial sector, her economy will in time be diversified.
- Man power development: Many people are trained in different technical areas in order to manage the different aspects or machines in an industry. Owing to industrial development, many people are trained in different aspects or machines in an industry. Owing to industrial development, many people are trained.
- Funding of education and research: The industrial sector provides capital for the funding of education and research work in all nations.
In summary, countries embark on industrialization in order:
- To reduce dependence on imports.
- To reduce dependence on primary products as sources of earning
- To increase earning either locally or internationally.
- To conserve foreign exchange
- To boost international image
- To generate employment
- To improve the standard of living of the people
raises funds for expansion WEED AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUGRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGES
8. CROP ROTATION