Definition of science and biology.
Science is defined as a collective and systematic process of making enquiry about the living and non-living things around us or our environment. We as humans have always been curios about the things we see and observe within and around our environment, why they move, and feeding prowess, how they came into existence. Most especially those things that seemed to have life in them hence the study of Biology.
DEFINITION OF BIOLOGY
The word biology is a combination of Greek words, Bios and Logos. Bios meaning life and logos meaning to study.
Therefore Biology is defined as the study of life. In other words it is better known as the study of plants and animals.
BRANCHES OF BIOLOGY
The study of biology is one the most important part of our existence on earth. Biology has nothing to do with non-living things. Therefore it is divided into two major groups of learning. These are
1. ZOOLOGY. This is the study of Animals
2. BOTANY. This is the study of plants
Other areas includes
3. ECOLOGY. This involves the study of how plants and animals interact with their environment.
4. MORPHOLOGY. This is the study the external features of both plants and animals
5. ANATOMY. This branch of biology involves the study of the internal structures of both plants and animals
6. GENETICS. This is the scientific study of variation and heredity in living things or organisms
7. PHYSIOLOGY. This is the study of plants and animals function in relation to their nature
THE BEST PROCESS OF STUDYING SCIENCE AS A SUBJECT
The very method of science involves the technical sequence of making enquiries about a thing or object under study. A good student of science has to learn to make clear, accurate and systematic accounts of every scientific investigation of discoveries.
No matter the subject of study in science, the following methods are widely practiced, they are
9. THEORY——— KNOWN ALSO AS LAW
The beginning of any scientific method is the observation process. It involves the use of natural sense to describe what one has seen or felt about an object. It is this observation that eventually leads to the Classification, then to Inference and later to measurement and identification of the existing problems. It is after these that the scientist can now form his Hypothesis or a comprehensive conclusion. It is here that the conclusive hypothesis is then tested with various forms of experiment. It is very important to know in reporting an experiment, it is of utmost relevance to every laid down pattern by scientists over time.
The following are the pattern laid by great scientists over the decade.
1. AIM. This is to state the purpose of the experiment
2. APPARATUS. This stands for the materials that will be used in the experiment.
3. METHOD. This is the description of the entire process in details through step by step.
4. OBSERVATION. This is the recording of what was seen during and after the experiment has been setup.
5. CONCLUSION. THIS IS TI RECORD THE TOTAL OUTCOME OF THE EXPERIMENT. And this is essentially based on the final result and observation.
NOTE: IN PERFORMING EXPERIMENT, A SCIENTIST NEED TO TAKE NOTE OF THE CONTROL EXPERIMENT. In control experiment, the scientist makes sure that during the experiment, the organism or object being observed is not deprived of the main factor being investigated.
The end of the experiment is then used to show whether the hypothesis is true or not. It the experiment shows that the hypothesis is false, then the certainty of the whole idea for the experiments In review is then repeated all over again or best discarded. But if the experiment shows the hypothesis to be true, the whole process is then repeated to be sure of a correct outcome. If subsequent experiment proves the hypothesis to be true within the available evidence, it is the put forward as theory to the whole scientific world. If accepted the world over is then known as a law.
IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE
There are so many usefulness of science in our modern world. We can see the various importance of science in the following ways,
1. MEDICINE. Science has contributed greatly the manufacture of vaccines and Drugs that are used today to cure various types of diseases
2. MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. Various raw materials have been combined by science to manufacture many finished goods and products commonly used by humans.
3. CONSTRUCTION. Many great architectural works of world were built and designed from scientific discoveries.
4. ENGINEERING. Applicable in Ship building, skyscrapers, bridges etc.
5. AGRICULTURE. New breeds of animals and varieties of crops including fertilizers have been developed over the years.
6. TECHNOLOGY. The study of science led to the discovery and production of computers
7. COMMUNICATION. Television, telephone, telex, etc. were developed through the help of science
8. TRANSPORTATION. The manufacturing of airplanes, ships, submarines and motor vehicles were all the result of the knowledge of science
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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90. MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
142. FIELD MACHINES
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION