insect-borne disease and transmission method, what are insect-borne diseases?
these are diseases that are spread by insect vectors. a vector is a disease-carrying organism. so any disease that is transmitted through an insect is known as insect-borne disease,
TYPES OF INSECT-BORNE DISEASE ORGANISMS
there are several types of insect-borne diseases, typically these are diseases caused by insects such as mosquitoes, Tse-Tse flies, cockroaches, house fly, black flies, ticks, lice, etc,
|Bunyavirales||Arbovirus encephalitis||La Crosse encephalitis|
|Bunyavirales||Arbovirus encephalitis||Batai virus|
|Bunyavirales||Arbovirus encephalitis||Bwamba Fever|
|Bunyavirales||Arbovirus encephalitis||California encephalitis|
|Bunyavirales||Arbovirus encephalitis||Jamestown Canyon encephalitis|
|Bunyavirales||Arbovirus encephalitis||Oropouche fever|
|Bunyavirales||Arbovirus encephalitis||Tahyna virus|
|Bunyavirales||Arbovirus encephalitis||Tete virus|
|Bunyavirales||Viral hemorrhagic fever||Bunyamwera fever|
|Bunyavirales||Viral hemorrhagic fever||Rift Valley fever|
|Flaviviridae||Arbovirus encephalitis||Japanese encephalitis|
|Flaviviridae||Arbovirus encephalitis||Murray Valley encephalitis virus|
|Flaviviridae||Arbovirus encephalitis||Rocio viral encephalitis|
|Flaviviridae||Arbovirus encephalitis||Saint Louis encephalitis|
|Flaviviridae||Arbovirus encephalitis||Spondweni fever|
|Flaviviridae||Arbovirus encephalitis||Usutu virus|
|Flaviviridae||Arbovirus encephalitis||West Nile fever|
|Flaviviridae||Viral hemorrhagic fever||Dengue fever|
, MALARIA AND THE MOSQUITO.
Malaria is a very dangerous disease which is known to have killed many people, especially children. It usually starts as a fever when the body of the patient becomes hot.
this is what the WHO has to say regarding malaria. let\’s take a look
Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. It is preventable and curable.
In 2020, there were an estimated 241 million cases of malaria worldwide.
The estimated number of malaria deaths stood at 627 000 in 2020.
The WHO African Region carries a disproportionately high share of the global malaria burden. In 2020, the region was home to 95% of malaria cases and 96% of malaria deaths.
Children under 5 accounted for about 80% of all malaria deaths in the Region. insect-borne disease
Malaria is an acute febrile illness caused by Plasmodium parasites, which are spread to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes.
There are 5 parasite species that cause malaria in humans, and 2 of these species – P. falciparum and P. vivax – pose the greatest threat. P. falciparum is the deadliest malaria parasite and the most prevalent on the African continent.
P. vivax is the dominant malaria parasite in most countries outside of sub-Saharan Africa.
The first symptoms – fever, headache and chills – usually appear 10–15 days after the infective mosquito bite and may be mild and difficult to recognize as malaria.
Left untreated, P. falciparum malaria can progress to severe illness and death within a period of 24 hours.
This is followed with headache and pains in the back and joints such persons do not feel like eating. Later the patient shivers and becomes restless. He cannot sleep even when he tries to.
CAUSES OF MALARIA AS INSECT-BORNE DISEASE
They destroy the red blood corpuscles of man and introduce poisonous substances into his blood it is this poisonous substance that cause feverishness.
If the blood of a sick person or a person who has been attacked earlier is sucked by another mosquito, the parasites are taken out and probably injected into another person during another bite.
THE MOSQUITO DISEASE TRANSMISSION
The mosquito is a small, thin fly. It has two wings and six long tiny legs. It also has a long piercing mouth. Mosquitoes breed in the water standing in cans, broken bottles, pots and any other kind of container.
read about holozoic adaptation and mood of nutrition here
Adult mosquitoes live in the bush and in dark corners of the house. They are very active at night when most people are asleep.
It has four stages in its life cycle. These are the egg, the larva, the pupa and the adult.
The mosquitoes lays their eggs on the surface of stagnant or stationary water. The eggs are boat-shaped and have a floating apparatus called `floats’.
In about four to seven days, the eggs hatch open and the larvae come out. The larva is a small, very active animal with a small head, big thorax and long segmented abdomen.
It has a large number of brushes. At the tail end is a breathing tube. It lies on the surface of the water. insect-borne disease
The larva changes into a comma-shaped pupa after about eight to eleven days. It has a big head with big eyes and breathing tubes.
THE ADULT STAGES OF MOSQUITO
As previously described, it is a small insect which is active at night or in dark rooms. The female hums. It has a long piercing mouth and bushy feelers.
HOW TO PREVENT THE SPREAD OF MALARIA
Since malaria is caused by parasites carried by mosquitoes, it is best prevented by killing and destroying all stages of mosquitoes.
1. All adult mosquitoes should be killed by spraying houses with shelltox, DDT, and other insecticides.
All standing water in cans and empty containers should be drained away. Exposed water should not be allowed to remain for more than four days.
Plants such as the cocoyam, banana and plantain should not be cultivated near houses, since between the leaves of these plants water will accumulate, thus, providing a suitable breeding place for mosquitoes.
The surface of stagnant pools which cannot be drained should be sprayed with oil. The oil spread over the water surface, preventing the larvae and the pupae of breeding mosquitoes from breathing. They will suffocate and die.
Quite occasionally we have large ponds of water. To prevent the breeding of mosquitoes, it is advisable to introduce some plantain leaves fish into such ponds. The fish will feed on the larvae and pupae.
Attacks by mosquitoes can be prevented by sleeping under mosquito nets. Where possible house should be mosquito-proof with mosquito netting of fine wires or muslin netting.
Malaria can be avoided by taking a few tablets of some medicines regularly. Such medicines include: nivaquine, camoquin, daraprim, etc.
The medicines destroy the malarial parasites as they enter the body and thus prevent them from causing any damage to the blood.
CAUSES OF SLEEPING SICKNESS IN FARM ANIMALS TYPE OF INSECT-BORNE DISEASE
In man, sleeping sickness begins with a painful swelling in the skin. This is followed by fever, headache, pains and swelling of the neck. In later stages, the patient loses weight, becomes weak, dull, drowsy, and sleepy and may finally die.
CAUSES AND SPREAD OF SLEEPING SICKNESS
Sleeping sickness is caused by some parasitic germs called trypanosomes. These germs are spread by a fly known as the tsetse fly.
When the fly bites a patient the parasites are introduced into the skin. From the skin, the parasites enter the blood from where they are sent to other parts of the body including the brain.
PREVENTION OF SLEEPING SICKNESS
- In tsetse fly areas, all bushes near houses should be cleared.
- Since tsetse flies breed in swamps by rivers and lakes, they can be eliminated or prevented from spreading if the bushes around these rivers and lakes are cleared for considerable distances.
- It is advisable to wear clothes which cover most parts of the body.
- Some chemicals such as DDT, dieldrin, etc. may be used to spray to kill tsetse flies.
IS YELLOW FEVER A TYPE OF INSECT-BORNE DISEASE?
yes, yellow fever is a type of insect-borne disease. Yellow fever is a disease caused by a germ (virus) carried by Aedes mosquitoes.
Yellow fever usually starts with fever and headache. This is accompanied by loss of appetite, some pains and general weakness
In severe cases, however, the patient becomes very ill due to the attack of the patient’s liver and kidneys by the disease germs. The patient becomes yellow and it is important to note that a large number of patients with severe attacks usually die. insect-borne disease
PREVENTION OF YELLOW FEVER
- All mosquitoes must be destroyed by draining stagnant water in tins and cans to prevent insect-borne disease
- Houses should be sprayed regularly to kill adult mosquitoes.
- All bushes near houses should be cleared.
- Always sleep under mosquito nets.
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