HOW TO MANAGE PIG FARM

Management of Pig farm

The management of pig from breeding to market size can be grouped into phases. These are:
(a) Breeding to farrowing or birth: Breeders (gilts and boars) are house in the breeders’ house, made of concrete floor, low wall and galvanized iron roofing sheets. Boar and gilt should be at least eight months before they are bred. The gilt must have, at least, twelve well-spaced functional treats and good temperament and should not be obese. Two weeks before mating, the gilt must be dewormed and sprayed with insecticide to remove internal and external parasites.

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Flushing should be done 7 to 10days before breeding and maintained until the animals are bred. Flushing is the process by which the feed intake of the gilt or sow is increased so that it can produce more eggs or ova and therefore, more number of fertilized eggs or ova and large litters or piglets.
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The gilt or sow is increased so that it can produce more eggs or ova and therefore, more number of fertilized eggs or ova and large litters or piglets. The gilt or sow is mated on the second day of heat and second mating is done 24hours later. The gilt or sow should be well fed during gestation period but not overfed because there is the tendency for fat deposition which leads to small litter size, insufficient milk production and difficulty in parturition.

They should be fed on Breeder’s mash. Breeders should be given sufficient exercise to prevent the deposition of fats. Sows and gilts should be given laxative diet, rich in high fibre (grasses) to aid easy parturition and lactation. Three to four days before farrowing, the sow or gilt should be taken to the farrowing house where they will give birth to piglets. Farrowing crates, rail guards, beddings, feeding and watering troughs and heating device should be provided in the farrowing house. An attendant must be present to give a helping hand during farrowing, in case of any difficulty.

(b) Birth of Piglet to Weaning
(i) When piglets are born, the mucus membrane is wiped from their nose to prevent suffocation
(ii) The naval cord is cut and dipped in iodine solution to prevent infection
(iii) Heat is provided for the piglets to prevent them from chill
(iv) The needle teeth of the piglets are clipped or cut off to prevent injury to the mother’s teat and piglets during fighting
(v) The piglets are given first dose of iron dextran injection at two or three days of birth and the second dose two to three weeks later to prevent pig anaemia
(vi) All male piglets, not required for breeding, are castrated at about two weeks after farrowing
(vii) Creep feeding also starts at about two weeks after farrowing. Creepfeed is high in protein (22%) and other nutrients. It supplements milk intake from the sow and also aids the growth of the piglets and their early weaning.
(viii) The piglets are car-notched for the sake of easy identification.
(ix) They are finally weaned (i.e. separated from their mother) at 42 days of six weeks of age

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(c) Weaning to Finishing (Market Size)
(i) Weaners are transferred to the growing fattener’s house
(ii) The pigs re first fed on weaners’ mash and later changed to fatteners mash few weeks1ater
(iii) The health care requirements of the pigs include administration of vaccines and drugs to prevent various diseases of pig
(iv) Parasitic infection should also be prevented through regular deworming and spraying of pigs with insecticides
(v) The pigs should be given exercise to prevent fat build-up in the body
(vi) Wallows where pigs can cool down their body temperature should be provided because they are non-sweating animals
(vii) Pigs, now fattener’s reach market age when they are about five to six months old, depending on the level of nutrition and management.

  1. FUNGAL DISEASES

PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS

159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
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