floriculture and ornamental plants


Floriculture is simple defined as the production and management of ornamental plants such as trees, shrubs and flowers.

In other words, floriculture involves the growth, care, use and marketing of some flowering plants, trees and shrubs.

Beautiful trees or flowering plants which can be used to decorate our environments are called ornamental plants. Ornamental plants could be trees, shrubs or flowers.

The person who grows and sells flowers is called a florist.

Growing with a floriculture objective means having a strong focus on the plant’s spacing, pruning, ideal flower harvest time frame, and post-harvest chores such as storage and packaging of buds, flower heads, and other parts of the plant.

Floriculture encompasses all realms of successful growing, growth habits, and harvesting of a flowering plant. Growers usually center their goals around the plant’s health, branching, growth size, bud formation, flowering, harvest, the plant’s distinct desirable characteristics, and its overall flower and bud yield at the time of harvest.

All plants have two stages: the vegetative stage and the flowering stage. Floriculture singles out the flowering stage of the plant as being the most important aspect of the plant’s life.

Floriculture growers work to make the plant’s transition from the vegetative to the flowering stage an easy change in the hopes of boosting the plant’s bud and flower growth to greater and newer heights.
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Floriculture, or flower farming, is a discipline of horticulture concerned with the cultivation of flowering and ornamental plants for gardens and for floristry,

comprising the floral industry. The development, via plant breeding, of new varieties is a major occupation of floriculturists.

Floriculture, also known as flower farming is a branch of horticulture that deals with cultivating ornamental and flowering plants.

The flowers and plants cultivated are meant for sale. These can be used in the cosmetic industry, the perfume industry and even the pharmaceutical industry.

Floriculture not only includes the cultivation of plants but also their marketing. Flowers are marketed to local as well as distant markets.

Cut flowers are also exported along with its products like scents, medicines and oils. The commercialization of flower cultivation has been a result of changing lifestyle of people.

Various forms of floriculture plants include bedding plants, foliage plants, cut flowers, flowering plants and cut cultivated greens.

Flowering plants are used indoors and are sold in pots. Foliage plants are also used indoors and are sold in pots or hanging baskets. Cut flowers are sold in bouquets and bunches.


Ornamental trees, shrubs and flowers are very important in a number of ways. These include:

(1) Sources of employment of Income: Ornamental plants and flowers provide employment or income to horticulturists of florists.
(2) Expression of Love: Flowers are used for the expression of love and as gifts on special occasions.


(3) For Decoration: Shade-loving ornamental can be used for decoration in porches, verandahs and halls.
(4) For Fencing: Densely branched ornamental shrubs can be used for fencing.

(5) For visual screening: Some ornamental plants are used for visual screening or concealing views, to provide privacy.
(6) Sources of compost materials: Pruning and clipping from hedges can be used as compost materials or mulch.

(7) For medicinal preparations: Some ornamental plants have medicinal value and are used in herbal preparation
(8) Sources of Food: some ornamental trees have edible fruits for human consumption.
(9) Nitrogen fixation: Some leguminous manure, e.g farmyard manure can be added to the soil to improve its fertility.

(10) Regular watering: Flowers should be watered at least twice a day-morning and evening

(11) Regular weeding: The florist should ensure that unwanted plants (weeds) are removed so as to provide nutrients, space, light, etc. For the normal growth of ornamental trees and flowers without competition.


Ornamental plants, also known as decorative plants or ornamentals, are cultivated and grown primarily for their aesthetic value. These plants are used to enhance the beauty and visual appeal of gardens, parks, indoor spaces, and landscapes. Ornamental plants come in various forms, including flowering plants, foliage plants, cacti and succulents, ferns, and more. They can be used to create colorful displays, add texture and structure, provide shade and privacy, or simply create a pleasant and inviting atmosphere.

Here are some popular types of ornamental plants:

Roses: Known for their exquisite beauty and fragrance, roses are one of the most beloved flowering ornamental plants. They come in a wide range of colors, shapes, and sizes, and are often used in flower beds, borders, and as cut flowers.

Tulips: These spring-blooming bulbs are renowned for their vibrant and diverse colors. Tulips are commonly planted in gardens and parks to create stunning displays of color and are often associated with the arrival of spring.

  1. Orchids: Orchids are highly prized for their unique and elegant flowers. They come in a variety of shapes, sizes, and colors, and are popular as houseplants or in specialized orchid gardens.
  2. Ferns: Ferns are known for their lush green foliage and are commonly used as ornamental plants in shaded areas or indoor environments. They add a touch of elegance and bring a sense of tranquility to any space.
  3. Succulents: Succulents have gained immense popularity in recent years due to their low maintenance requirements and unique shapes. These plants store water in their leaves, making them well-suited for arid conditions. They come in a wide range of sizes, colors, and textures, making them versatile for both indoor and outdoor decoration.
  4. Japanese Maple: The Japanese Maple tree is highly valued for its distinctive leaf shapes and vibrant foliage colors, especially in autumn. It is often used as a focal point in gardens or as a specimen tree.
  5. Hydrangeas: Hydrangeas are known for their large clusters of flowers in various colors, including pink, blue, purple, and white. They are popular for adding a splash of color to garden borders or as potted plants.
  6. Lavender: Lavender is prized for its fragrant flowers and aromatic foliage. It is commonly grown in gardens for its attractive appearance and is often used in dried flower arrangements, potpourri, or as an essential oil.


(i) Provision of shade: Shade should be provided for the seedling to protect them against excessive rainfall and heat of the sun

(ii) Regular Watering: Horticultural plants and flowers should be watered at least twice a day – early in the morning and late in the evening.

(iii) Regular weeding: The florist should ensure that unwanted plants (weeds) are removed so as to allow for adequate nutrients, space, light, etc for the normal growth of ornamental trees and flowers.

(iv) Fertilizer Application: Fertilizers and manure can be applied to the soil to improve the soil fertility for this growth of ornamental trees, shrubs and flowers

(v) Fencing: Ornamental plants should be protected from being eaten up by animals like cattle, sheep, goat, etc
(vi) Regular Pruning: Old leaves, stems and side branches should be pruned with either shears or secateurs.

What does Floriculture mean?

Floriculture refers to farming, plant care, propagation, and cultivation with one goal in mind, the maximum production of flower buds and flowers. Growers who focus on floriculture also generally experiment with creating new strains, cultivars, and varieties to improve bud and flower development.

Floriculture is an entire gardening spectrum that is geared towards understanding and improving all aspects of bud and flower creation, including indoor lighting, growroom requirements, greenhouse needs, plant nutrition, irrigation, pest management, and breeding new cultivars/strains. The goal of floriculture is always to improve the plant so it yields larger buds, more abundant buds, and optimal flowering times.


Flowers are considered a symbol of love, grace and elegance. We use flowers on religious occasions too. Flowers are given as birthday gifts, wedding gifts, at funerals and also when one goes to meet a sick person.

Many Hindu ladies use flowers to style their hair in the form of gajras and veni. Apart from beautification and decoration, flowers have industrial importance too. Flowers like rose, jasmine give essential oils which are used in making perfumes and scents.

Floriculture has tremendous potential in India. The different types of climatic conditions provide for the possibility of growing almost all the major cut flowers.

Species of the world, whether of tropical, sub-tropical or temperate climate origin. However, flowers in India are produced in open field conditions, mostly during the mild winter months without use of any advanced technology. As a result, the quality and quantity available for marketing are heterogeneous and vary according to the prevailing weather conditions

India has better opportunities in the development of the floriculture sector due to the following reasons:

Diverse climatic conditions and locations suited for growing different types of flowers
Skilled manpower to absorb the technology and implement the same at a relatively low cost
Soil and water supply at most locations

Good radiation/ sunlight leads to healthier plant growth and better-quality flowers
Good periods of sunlight even during heavy rains lead to continued plant growth and yield

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