farm structures and their types

types of farm structures. what are Farm structures, Apart from concrete buildings, there are several other structures on the farm. These structures could be of temporary or permanent nature. depending on their uses.

Farm structures are buildings and other structures that are used on farms to support agricultural production. They can be used for a variety of purposes, such as housing livestock, storing crops and equipment, and providing shelter for workers and animals.

common types of farm structures:

  • Barns: Barns are typically large, multi-purpose buildings that are used to house livestock, store crops and equipment, and provide shelter for workers and animals.
  • Silos: Silos are tall, cylindrical structures that are used to store grain and other bulk materials.
  • Cribs: Cribs are smaller structures that are used to store corn and other crops.
  • Greenhouses: Greenhouses are structures that are used to grow plants in controlled environments.
  • Poultry houses: Poultry houses are structures that are used to house chickens, turkeys, and other poultry.
  • Dairy barns: Dairy barns are structures that are used to house dairy cows and their calves.
  • Piggeries: Piggeries are structures that are used to house pigs. Farm piggery
  • Machine sheds: Machine sheds are structures that are used to store and protect farm equipment. Farm machine shed
  • Fences: Fences are used to enclose farm property and keep livestock in or out of certain areas.
  • Water troughs: Water troughs are used to provide water for livestock.

Farm structures can be made from a variety of materials, including wood, metal, concrete, and brick. The choice of materials will depend on the budget of the farmer, the climate, and the purpose of the structure.

Farm structures are an important part of agricultural production. They help to protect livestock and crops from the elements, provide shelter for workers and animals, and store farm equipment.

Here are some tips for maintaining farm structures:

  • Inspect farm structures regularly for signs of damage.
  • Repair any damage as soon as possible to prevent further deterioration.
  • Keep farm structures clean and dry to prevent the growth of mould and mildew.
  • Apply a sealant to the exterior of wooden farm structures to protect them from the elements.
  • Paint metal farm structures to protect them from rust.

The following are the structures commonly found on the farm:
Storage structure
These are used for storing farm produce or different kinds.

They include:
Yam barn for storing yam tubers:
The yam barn as a type of farm structure, is constructed by fitting vertical poles into the ground. Horizontal poles are tied to the vertical poles fitted to the horizontal poles to which the yam tubers are tied singly in a horizontal position.


These are tower-like structures usually built of aluminium and are used for storing dried grains like maize and sorghum (guinea corn).

These are structures used for storing unshelled maize on the farm.

Processing farm structures:

These are structures used for the processing of different kinds of produce on the farm. They include a cassava mill, rice mill, abattoir (for slaughtering animals) milk pasteurizing shed (for sterilising fresh milk) fish/meal smoking or drying shed.

Making fences for a farm building

This is a structure constructed around the farm. Fence could be any of the following types:
1. Barbed wire fence
2. Hedge or live fence
3. Post and rail fence
4. Wire netting fence
5. Wall fence
6. Electric fence.

The fence serves several purposes on the farm. These include:

1. To protect the crops and animals.
2. To demarcate boundaries.
3. To prevent thieves from gaining easy access to the farm.
4. To improve the grazing habits of animals such as in rotational grazing.
5. To control animal breeding habits.
6. To reduce the spread of pests and disease organisms
7. To add beauty to the farm.

Gates and Porter’s Lodge: these are attached to the fence at the entrance to the farm. The gate is controlled by the mate-man who stays in the porter’s lodge. It is used to control movement In and out of the farm.

Gates are also found in animal pens and fenced paddocks. They are used to control the movement of the animals.

Other farm Structures include:

Farm structures are physical facilities, buildings, and infrastructure on a farm that are designed and constructed to support various agricultural activities and operations.

These structures are essential for the efficient and effective management of the farm, the well-being of livestock, the storage of crops and equipment, and the overall success of agricultural enterprises.

Here are some common farm structures:

  1. Barns: Barns are large, often multi-purpose buildings used for sheltering livestock, storing feed, and housing equipment. There are various types of barns, including dairy barns, livestock barns, and hay barns.
  2. Stables: Stables are structures specifically designed to house horses or other equines. They provide shelter and often include stalls for individual animals.
  3. Chicken Coops: These structures provide shelter for poultry, such as chickens and ducks. They are designed to protect the birds from predators and harsh weather conditions.
  4. Greenhouses: Greenhouses are enclosed structures with transparent walls and roofs designed to control the climate and provide an ideal environment for growing plants. They are used for seedling production, growing vegetables, and cultivating ornamental plants.
  5. Silos: Silos are tall, cylindrical structures used for storing grains, silage, and other bulk agricultural materials. They protect stored crops from moisture and pests. read more here
  6. Grain Storage Facilities: These include grain bins and grain elevators, which are used to store and handle bulk quantities of grains like wheat, corn, and soybeans.
  7. Farmhouses: Farmhouses are residential structures where farmers and their families live. They often include living quarters, kitchens, and sometimes office space for farm management.
  8. Sheds: Sheds are versatile structures used for various purposes, including equipment storage, workshop space, and a shelter for smaller livestock or poultry.
  9. Milking Parlors: In dairy farming, milking parlours are specialized facilities where cows or other dairy animals are milked using mechanized equipment. read about milking machines here
  10. Cold Storage Facilities: These structures are designed to store perishable crops and products at low temperatures to extend their shelf life. Cold storage is crucial for fruits, vegetables, and dairy products.
  11. Manure Management Facilities: These facilities are used to store and manage animal waste, such as manure. Proper manure management is essential for environmental sustainability and preventing water pollution.
  12. Poultry Processing Plants: Larger farms may have processing plants for the slaughter and processing of poultry or other livestock.
  13. Irrigation Systems: While not buildings, irrigation systems are vital infrastructure for farms. They include pumps, pipes, and distribution systems to deliver water to crops.
  14. Fencing and Enclosures: Fencing and enclosures are used to define property boundaries, keep livestock contained, and protect crops from wildlife.
  15. Drying Sheds and Racks: These structures are used for drying crops like tobacco, coffee, or herbs.

The design and selection of farm structures depend on the type of agriculture practised, the size of the farm, climate conditions, local regulations, and the specific needs of the farm operation.

Properly designed and maintained farm structures are essential for the safety and productivity of agricultural operations.

A11 these are collectively referred to as utility structures.

Maintenance of farm buildings and structures

Buildings and structures on the farm require adequate maintenance if they are to last for a long time and perform the functions they are meant for. Therefore, it is necessary

Concreting farm structures

The floors of buildings should be made of concrete to avoid cracking and wearing away. Concrete floors do not provide hideouts for rodents and other pests of farm produce.

Painting, Oiling or Greasing

The wooden parts of buildings and structures should be painted with anti-insect chemicals such as solignum to prevent them from being damaged
by termites and other insects.

Also, metal parts should be painted with anti-rust paint especially tanks and other materials used in storing water. Other metal materials that are likely to become rusty after some time should be painted with oil paint, oiled, or greased.


Wooden materials used in the building and construction of farm structures should be seasoned, that is properly dried before being used. This will help to protect the wood from insect=pest damage and the possibility of the structure becoming slacked after some time.

Regular inspection and repairs

All farm structures should be checked frequently and age should be repaired without delay. The damaged parts of any building or structure should be replaced with new ones. Openings on the walls of the building. should Be covered to prevent rodents from in them.


It is important to keep buildings and structures clean as this helps to prolong their lifespan. Water tanks should be cleaned always, abattoirs, milking sheds, processing structures and others need cleaning. Storage structures should be cleaned after the odd consignment has been removed before bringing in new ones.


The tops of farm buildings should be properly roofed to make them rat-proof. Asbestos, iron, or aluminium sheets should be used instead of thatched roofs. This helps to protect the buildings against too much sun, rainstorms, and rats.

Bracing of Walls

Walls and heavy roofs should be supported by pillars to make them strong and prevent them from collapsing.

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