cultural practices are the total activities carried on the farm during crop production which is known as cultural activities.
cultural practices in crop production
|cultural practices in crop production|
importance of cultural practice in crop production
(i) Art of erecting cover above seedlings. erecting cover to shield seedlings from sunshine is a typical example of cultural practice in crop production.
(ii) mulching as type cultural and pre-planting operation Protects seedlings from harsh external environmental conditions e.g. sun and rain drops. Reduces evapo-transpiration. Shades are progressively removed until they are finally dispensed with. so cultural practices in crop production can be divided into different groups. which are pre-planting practices, post planting and planting operation
(i) Materials used for shading include palm fronds, tall grasses and tarpaulins.
Supplying / filling-in as a cultural practice in crop production
filling-in as a cultural practice in crop production is The replacement of seeds that fail to germinate or seedling that dies. read more about seed germination here
(ii) It is earned out to maintain desired plant population.
(iii) Usually done by transplanting new seedlings or planting new seeds in the site for the ungerminated seed.
(iv) It is usually manually done.
(v) Done within 2 weeks of 1st planting to obtain uniformity in growth (growth uniformity).
Cultural Nursery practice
(i) as part of cultural practices in crop production, Nursery can be practiced in polypots, seed boxes and bed.
(ii) Seeds which are smaller and delicate or plants which are delicate while young require pre-planting sites known as nurseries (types of nurseries) are meant to have seedlings become adjusted to the harsh environment
(iv) Nursery sites should have good top soil with good drainage
(v) Seeds are mostly broadcast or drilled and lightly covered with soil.
(vi) Watering is done with a fine rose watering can
(i) All seed boxes, beds, drills must be properly labeled
(ii) Nurseries are usually shaded
(iii) Usually enclosed or fenced
Weeding, pest and disease control and application of fertilizer are usually practiced in the nursery
Cultural Seed rate in crop production:
Seed rate refers to the quantity of seeds required to plant one hectare of land. in cultural practices Quantity of seeds used usually depends on spacing or plant population desired. (e.g the seed rate of maize is 25 —30 kg/ hectare).
Thinning cultural practice:
Thinning as cultural practice is the removal of weak plants from a stand, to give rise to one or two vigorous crop plants. It is usually done by hand and practiced when the crop plants are very young.
Weeding as a cultural practice in crop production
This is the removal of unwanted plants which grow among cultivated crops. Weeding or weed control is done regularly on farmlands in order to prevent competition with crops for space, sunlight, nutrients, soil moisture, soil oxygen, etc. Weeding can be done manually by hoeing, cutlassing, etc or chemically with the use of specific herbicides, or mechanically with machine.
Mulching as a cultural practice in crop production:
Mulching is the covering of heaps or ridges with dry leaves to reduce soil temperature, conserve soil moisture and prevent rottening of some• crop plants, e.g. yam setts.
Spacing cultural practice:
Spacing refers to the distance within and between crop plants in a farmland. This ensures greater yield of crops and prevents over — crowding. and easy ventilation within and between rows of crop plants For example, the spacing for maize could be 90 cm x 30 cm at one seed per hole or 75cm x 25cm at two seeds per ho1e.
Staking type of cultural practice:
Staking is the act of providing stakes or certain plant or wood to enable the crop plants stand erect and prevent lodging. Stems are tied or trained to the stakes. Staking allows for good fruiting and keeps fruits from disease attack arising from contact with soil. Staking is usually done before flowering. Examples of crop plants that require staking are tomato and yam.
Pruning as a cultural practice in crop production
Pruning is the removal of lower branches of crop plant using sharp cutlass. Pruning encourages better canopy formation, more light penetration and improved air movement.
Examples of crops that usually require pruning are cocoa, oil palm, rubber, orange, mango, etc.
WEED AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
- factors affecting the expansion of industries
- mineral resources and the mining industries
- demand and supply
- Provision of capital: The entrepreneur is responsible for the provision of capital for business. The availability of enough capital will determine the level of success of the business. His capital may include physical cash, motor vehicles, building, plants and machinery.
- Risk bearing: the entrepreneur bears the risk associated with the business. Lots of risks are involved in all business set up, e.g. stealing, bad weather and fire. When his goods are in high demand, he makes profit but when the reserve is the case, he suffers losses.
- Efficient management: The entrepreneurs also ensure efficient management of the business by combining the other to maximize production and profits.
- Effective organization: the entrepreneur also ensures an affective organization in the business. He ensures that he has qualified personnel and assigns duties to them. He supervises them to ensure affective operations in the business.
4 thoughts on “CULTURAL PRACTICES IN CROP PRODUCTION”
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What is seedrate
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