cultural practices in crop production
importance of cultural practice in crop production
(i) Art of erecting cover above seedlings. erecting a cover to shield seedlings from sunshine is a typical example of cultural practice in crop production.
Reduces evapo-transpiration. Shades are progressively removed until they are finally dispensed with. so cultural practices in crop production can be divided into different groups.
(i) Materials used for shading include palm fronds, tall grasses and tarpaulins.
Supplying / filling-in as a cultural practice in crop production
filling-in as a cultural practice in crop production is The replacement of seeds that fail to germinate or seedling that dies. read more about seed germination here
(ii) It is earned out to maintain desired plant population.
(iii) Usually done by transplanting new seedlings or planting new seeds in the site for the ungerminated seed.
(iv) It is usually manually done.
(v) Done within 2 weeks of 1st planting to obtain uniformity in growth (growth uniformity).
Cultural Nursery practice
(i) As part of cultural practices in crop production, Nursery can be practised in polypots, seed boxes and beds.
(ii) Seeds which are smaller and delicate or plants which are delicate while young require pre-planting sites known as nurseries (types of nurseries) and are meant to have seedlings become adjusted to the harsh environment
(vi) Watering is done with a fine rose watering can
(i) All seed boxes, beds, and drills must be properly labelled (ii) Nurseries are usually shaded
(iii) Usually enclosed or fenced
Cultural Seed Rate in crop production:
Seed rate refers to the quantity of seeds required to plant one hectare of land. in cultural practices, the Quantity of seeds used usually depends on spacing or the plant population desired. (e.g the seed rate of maize is 25 —30 kg/ hectare).
Thinning cultural practice:
Thinning as a cultural practice is the removal of weak plants from a stand, to give rise to one or two vigorous crop plants. It is usually done by hand and practised when the crop plants are very young.
Weeding as a cultural practice in crop production
This is the removal of unwanted plants which grow among cultivated crops.
Mulching as a cultural practice in crop production:
Spacing cultural practice:
Spacing refers to the distance within and between crop plants in farmland.
This ensures a greater yield of crops and prevents overcrowding. and easy ventilation within and between rows of crop plants For example, the spacing for maize could be 90 cm x 30 cm at one seed per hole or 75cm x 25cm at two seeds per hole.
Staking type of cultural practice:
Staking is the act of providing stakes or certain plants or wood to enable the crop plants to stand erect and prevent lodging.
tomato cultural practices Staking is usually done before flowering. Examples of crop plants that require staking are tomatoes tomato cultural practices and yam.
Pruning as a cultural practice in crop production
Pruning is the removal of lower branches of crop plants using a sharp cutlass. Pruning encourages better canopy formation, more light penetration and improved air movement.
Cultural practices play a significant role in crop production. They encompass a wide range of activities and techniques employed by farmers to promote the growth, development, and health of crops.
Here are some important cultural practices in crop production:
Crop Rotation: Crop rotation involves the systematic sequencing of different crops in a specific field over several growing seasons.
This practice helps reduce the buildup of pests and diseases, improves soil fertility, and optimizes nutrient utilization.
Different crops have varying nutrient requirements and interactions with pests and diseases, so rotating crops can help break the cycles that can negatively impact yields.
Tillage: Tillage refers to the mechanical manipulation of the soil to prepare the seedbed, control weeds, and manage crop residues.
It helps improve seed-to-soil contact, enhances soil aeration and water infiltration, and disrupts weed growth. However, excessive or improper tillage can lead to soil erosion and degradation, so farmers need to strike a balance based on the specific conditions and requirements of their crops.
Irrigation: Irrigation involves the application of water to crops when natural rainfall is insufficient. It is a critical practice in areas with limited water availability or during dry seasons.
Proper irrigation techniques and scheduling are essential to meet crop water requirements, prevent water stress, and maximize yields. Irrigation methods can vary, including surface irrigation, sprinkler irrigation, and drip irrigation.
Weed Control: Weeds compete with crops for nutrients, water, and sunlight, and can significantly reduce yields. Cultural weed control practices include manual removal, hoeing, mulching, and using cover crops.
Additionally, crop rotation and tillage can also help suppress weed growth. Integrated weed management approaches that combine cultural practices with chemical or biological methods are often employed to effectively manage weeds.
Fertilization: Fertilization involves the application of essential nutrients to crops to support their growth and development.
Cultural practices related to fertilization include the use of organic matter (such as compost or manure) to improve soil fertility, the application of chemical fertilizers based on soil testing, and the timing and placement of fertilizers to maximize nutrient uptake by the crops.
Sustainable nutrient management practices aim to minimize nutrient losses to the environment and optimize resource utilization.