BANANA/PLANTING (Musa spp)
plantain farming include improved varieties of planting materials called suckers; soil fertility; planting spacing know-how; manure application, and most importantly, water application are some of he key points one has to learn about planting plantain
Land Preparation: Clearing of the land to plant plantain is followed by stumping and making of ridges or heaps.
Many farmers might have tried and failed in plantain farming, but with the necessary requirements in place, plantain cultivation business can prove to be very lucrative and easy to start-up. It is equally done in an integrated system.
Requirements of successful plantain farming include improved varieties of planting materials called suckers; soil fertility; planting spacing know-how; manure application, and most importantly, water application.
Land Preparation: Clearing of the land which is followed by stumping and making of ridges or heaps. It can also be done mechanically through ploughing, harrowing and ridging.
Varieties/Cultivars of banana and planting
Gross Michel; Cavendish (dwarf); red banana; canary banana.
Climatic and soil requirements for plantain/banana
plant requires a temperature of 21oC- 25°C, rainfall of l5Ocm – 200cm per annum and a well- drained, rich, loamy soil. if plantain is cultivated in such areas as listed above, the plantain will yield quality produce
Planting Materials for banana/plantain
: These are corm (or bits), peeper suckers, sword sucker and maiden sucker.
: Banana is propagated by vegetative means any time from April to September. Dig a hole and plant the sucker with ball of earth. The hole should be 60cm x 60cm. The holes are filled with soil(soil management) mixed with organic matter.
Spacing: 4m x 4m
Cultural Practices for the cultivation of banana/plantain
(i) Weeding plantain plantation: This should be done regularly to prevent competition with crops for nutrients.
(ii) Mulching of plantain: This should be done to prevent evaporation.
(iii) Fertilizer Application in plantain farm: Apply Muriate of potash 25kg/ha by ring method at regular intervals.
(iv) how to Prune plantain: This should be done to avoid over-population per stand.
(v) Pests and other insects of plantain should be controlled.
Maturity period for plantain and banana
It matures between 12-18 months, depending on the variety.
Processing/storage of bananaNigeria and Africa at large.
the fruit of plantain can be processed into chips, pounded yam-like, can be eaten raw, cooked as plantain porridge or portage
Pests of Banana and control methods
the Larvae of some insects bore into and destroy the tissue of the plantain.
(i) Apply dieldrin dust or furadan
It makes the root of banana
to grow galls or knots, leading to poor growth
Control: Use appropriate nematicide
Rats and Monkeys:
these eat up the matured or ripe fruits
(i) Use poison baits
(ii) Set traps
(iii) Harvest ripe fruit early
Diseases of Banana and control methods
Panama disease:It is caused by fungus (Fusarium oxysperum) which is spread through the soil. Symptoms include collapsing of the petiole and withering of the leaves.
how to Control pests of plantain:
(i) Use resistant varieties.
(ii) Spray with fungicide.
Leaf spot (or Sigatoka) disease of plantain:
It caused by a fungus (Cercospora mycosi haerella) which is transmitted by air wind(airbone diseases). Symptoms: include yellow or brown chiorotic spots which later unite to form or bind lateral to parallel vein.
how to Control leaf spot disease of plantain:
Spray with fungicide, e.g. Bordeaux mixture.
(iii) Bunchy top disease of plantain and banana:
this plantain disease is caused by a virus transmitted by an insect. Symptoms include stunted plant with crowded leaves having curled edges.
(i) Ensure field sanitation
(ii) Bury or burn infected plants.
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87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST