CROP HUSBANDRY AND CULTIVATION. major crop husbandry practices is the Growing of at least one representative crop from each of the following groups: (a) cereals (b) pulses

(grain legumes) (c) Roots and tubers (d) vegetables and fruits, (e) Beverages and spices (f) oil, latex and fibre
(1) Transplanting

(i) The transfer of seedlings from nursery beds to their permanent positions in the field.
(ii) The tools used for transplanting are hand trowel, digger, hoe or cutlass. (iii) Plant is removed with a ball of soil around its roots.
(iv) Mostly done in cool weather, in morning or evening times.
(v) Transplants require shading to reduce wilting. (vi) Soil around roots at permanent site are firmed to eliminate air pockets for good root establishment.

(vii) Watering is done morning and evening.
(viii) Mulch after transplanting to reduce evapo-transpiration.
(ix) Usually done at the early stages of development of the crop plant, long before maturity.
(x) Weak or diseased seedling should not be transplanted

crop husbandry

 the cultivation and production of edible crops or of animals for food; agriculture; farming. the science of raising crops or food animals. careful or thrifty management; frugality, thrift, or conservation. the management of domestic affairs or of resources generally.

economic tools for nation building

  1. budgeting
  2. factors affecting the expansion of industries
  3. mineral resources and the mining industries
  4. demand and supply
  5. types of demand curve and used
  6. advertising industry

Meaning: Capital formation or capital accumulation refers to increasing a country’s stock of real capital. That is, it refers to increasing the net investment in form of fixed assets.

For a country to be able to accumulate more capital, there must be increase in savings and a reduction in consumption of consumer goods. The rate of economic development of any country is directly related to the rate of capital formation. In most advanced countries like Britain, Japan and the United States of America, stocks of capital are high as a result of high rate of capital formation whereas in many developing countries of the world, there is a low rate of capital accumulation as a result of low per capita income and low savings, which results in what is termed vicious circle of poverty.


Causes of low capital formation in West African countries

The causes of low capital formation in West African countries include:

  1. Existence of a vicious circle of poverty: The existence of low income results in low savings and in turn results in a shortage of capital for investment, which results in low investment. Low investment leads to low, output, and eventually to low income. The low income result again to low savings and the vicious circle continues.
  2. Wasteful expenditure: Many governments in West African countries are involved in wasteful expenditure as they embark on prestigious but productive ventures thereby resulting low capital formation
  3. Inequitable distribution of income:In many West African countries, only individuals are rich while thepoor. Even the few rich ones spend their money on prestigious projects which are on-productive and these generally give rise to low capital formation.

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