characteristics of subsistence agriculture

characteristics of SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE. Subsistence agriculture involves the use of crude or simple farm tools
There is no specialization in subsistence agriculture
In subsistence agriculture, unskilled labours are mainly employed for lack of finance

what is subsistence agriculture

Definition:
Subsistence agriculture is defined as the type of agricultural practice which is concern with the production of food by a farmer for his family consumption only. In other words, subsistence agriculture is termed as the type farming practice where a farmer goes into farming just to feed his immediate family or household.

farm cultivation system

characteristics of subsistence agriculture

The characteristics of pure subsistence agriculture are outlined as follows
Subsistence agriculture is mostly practiced by peasant farmers
Subsistence agriculture involves small portion of land—land tenure system
Subsistence agriculture involves the use of crude or simple farm tools
There is no specialization in subsistence agriculture
In subsistence agriculture, unskilled labours are mainly employed for lack of finance
In subsistence agriculture, return of investment in always very low or poor

Most often, subsistence agriculture uses only the family labour input
Subsistence agriculture is geared towards the family need only
There is little or no surplus of food for sale in order to raise money
Subsistence agriculture involve little capital
Subsistence agriculture depends on natural rainfall because of lack of money to build modern irrigation system

subsistence agriculture

Subsistence agriculture is concerned with the production of food crops only
The use of agro-chemicals is limited
Unimproved varieties of crops are often used
Mixed system of farming is usually practiced in subsistence agriculture

characteristics problems of subsistence agriculture

The problems that are usually associated with subsistence agriculture are listed bellow though not limited to these alone as it concern subsistence agriculture. So here are the problems facing subsistence agriculture listed accordingly

  1. Family labour supply is unreliable: in the face of rural-urban migration of able bodied men, it most probably leads to non-availability of labours. Therefore development of the farm is hampered and limited
    Crude tools are mostly used: using crude implements in agricultural production often lead to poor yield compared to the use of tractors, bulldozers, ploughs, harvesters and harrows.

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  1. Fragmented or use of small farmland: the use of small farmlands for farming (land tenure system)is usually the issue with subsistence agriculture which is geared towards feeding the immediate family only
    Illiteracy of the farmers: labour or labourers used in subsistence agriculture has little or no formal education, which in turn results in their inability to read written instructions and adopt modern farming techniques.

features of subsistence agriculture

No surplus for sale: this often keeps the farmer permanently poor as he will not be able to generate enough capital to expand the size of the farm also known as land tenure system

  1. Inadequate capital for investment and expansion: this aspect of subsistence agriculture leads to small farm holding and inability to buy large farm input
    Low level of specialization: the subsistence farmer is often involved in mixed farming system known as mixed cropping as against the production of a particular crop which could lead to specialization
    Pest and diseases are not properly controlled: owing to the illiteracy and [poverty level, pest and diseases are properly controlled and these further leads to low yield.
    Low return or yield: as a result of illiteracy and low capital investment of the farmer and small farm holdings, the yield and returns from subsistence agriculture is usually very low

Subsistence agriculture is mostly practiced in most parts of West Africa, Nigeria Southern parts for example, is littered with this type farming due to non-availability of land enough for to engage in commercial agriculture or large scale farming. Most African communities are engaged in subsistence agriculture also known as communal farming system which involves the act of bush fallowing to allow the land some space to replenish itself by gaining nutrients in the natural way.

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WEED AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION

  1. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
    19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
    20. INCUBATORS
    21. MILKING MACHINE
    22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
    23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
    24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
    25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
    26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
    27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
    28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
    29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
    30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
    31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
    32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
    33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
    34. OIL PALM
    35. USES OF PALM OIL
    36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
    37. COCOA

38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE

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  1. BALANCED DIETS
    141. LACTATION DIETS
    142. MALNUTRITION
  2. RINDER PESTS
    148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
    149. BACTERIA DISEASES
    150. ANTHRAX
    151. BRUCELLOSIS
    152. TUBERCULOSIS
    153. FUNGAL DISEASES
  3. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
    155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS

    159. TAPE WORM
    160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
    161. LIVER FLUKE
    162. ECTO PARASITES
    163. TICK

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