CATTLE REARING AND TYPES OF CATTLE

CATTLE REARING, Cattle belongs to the group of animals known as Bovidae. They are ruminants, having hollow horns and hoofs with an even number of toes. Cattle are reared for their meat, milk, hide and skin, manure and as draught animals for work on the farm.

BREEDS OF CATTLE

below are some of the cattle that are mainly reared as farm animal

(i) Azawal
(ii) Sokoto gudali
(iii) Wadara (Shuwa)
(iv) White Fulani
(v) Red bororo
(vi) Muturu
(vii) N’dama
(viii) Keketu Borgu)
(ix) Kuri
(x) Brown Swiss
(xi) Holstein
(xii) Jersey

 

 

parts of a cow
labeled parts of a cattle

The breeds of cattle can also be categorized into three groups. These groups are:
(a) Beef Cattle: Beef cattle are the cattle which have the ability to produce meat. Examples are: (i) N’dama (ii) Red Bororo (iii) Sokoto Gudali (iv) Keteku (Borgu) (v) Kuri (vi) Brown Swiss (vii) Rahaji
(b) Dairy Cattle: These are cattle which are reared mainly to produce milk. Examples are: (i) White Fulani (ii) Jersey (iii) Red poll (iv) Kerry (v) Guernsey (vi) Dexter (vii) Holstein / Friesian (viii) Ayshere (ix) South devon (x) Dairy short born.
(c) Dual Purpose Cattle: These are cattle capable of producing milk and meat. Examples are: (i) Azawal (ii) Muturu (iii) Biu (iv) Wadara (shuwa).

 

TERMINOLOGIES USED IN CATTLE REARING

when it come to cattle rearing, the following are the various breeds of cattle terminologies used to describe them

Bull An adult male cattle
Cow An adult female cattle
Calf A young or baby cattle
Heifer A growing female up to first calving
Bull calf A young male cattle
Heifer calf A young female cattle
Steer A castrated male cattle
Ox A castrated adult male
Vealer A castrated female cattle
Serving Act of mating in cattle
Calving Act of giving birth (Parturition)
Beef Meat of cattle
Dairy cattle Cattle kept for milk production
Beef cattle Cattle reared for meat production
Herd A group of cattle
Polled Cattle without horns
Horned Cattle with horns
Humped Cattle with humps
Humpless Cattle without humps

 

Cattle Farming. Cattle rearing involves the rearing and management of two types of animals- one group for food requirements like milk and another for labour purposes like ploughing, irrigation, etc.   Animals which provide milk are called milch/dairy animals. For example, goats, buffalo, cows, etc. Animals which are used for labour are called draught animals.

Since dairy animals are cared for and bred for milk, we need to improve milk production to meet the requirements. The period after the birth of a calf, when a cow starts to produce milk, is called the lactation period. We can enhance milk production by increasing this lactation period. But along with milk production, quality must also meet. Dairy farm management is the management of the milch animals with the goal of enhancing the quantity and quality of the milk produced. For this reason, high-yielding and disease-resistant breeds are developed

 

Characteristics of West African Breeds of Cattle

(i) Very hardy (ii) Have greater tolerance to heat and humidity (iii) Tolerant to diseases e.g. trypanosomiasis (iv) withstand stress and travel long distances without water. (v) maturing (vi) Have compact/blocky shaped body. (vii) Are mostly of purpose (produce meat and milk) (Generally long legged animals. (ix) Some are humped (x) Powerful shoulder for use as draught animals Loose, thin and pigmented skin (xii) Low milk yields/small udder (xiii) S growth rate (xiv) Small body weight.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF CATTLE REARING

as a general concept,cattle rearing provides the following advantages

(i) Cattle provide meat and milk for man
(ii) Some cattle help to pull ploughs and work as draught animals.
(iii) They provide hides and skin
(iv) They provide blood meal and bone meal for farm animals as feed
(v) Fertilizers can be obtained from blood, bones and offals of cattle
(vi) Cattle dung (faeces) is a very good source of manure
(vii) Cattle provide employment and income to people
(viii) Cattle are also a source of revenue to some countries
(ix) Cattle are also used for religious purposes as well as festivals in some places
(x) Cattle are used for research work or work educational purposes

 

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WEED AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE

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