Goats are very common farm animals all over Nigeria.
(a) Importance of Goat Keeping
1. Goat meat is cherished by many people and it is a rich source of protein
2. Goat milk is easily diucstible and has manv advantages over cow milk
3. Goat hair) is used in making carpets and bags.
4. Goat provide income to the keeper.
5. Goat provides hides and skin used in making leather works.
6. Goat are used for many festivals and ceremonies.
7. The droppings provide manure to soils for growing crops.
(b) Breed of Goat: The following are the common breeds of goat in Nigeria:
(a) Dwarf goat
(b) Sokoto Red or Maradi
(c) Sahel or Desert goat
(d) Kano Brown
(e) Borno Red
Imported or exotic breeds include:
(c) Some terms associated with goat keeping:
1. Doe: adult female goat
2. Billy: adult male goat
3. Kid: a young goat of either sex usually under one year old.
4. Goat meat: meat from goat
5. Castrate: castrated male goat
6. Kidding: the act of giving birth in goats,
(d) Goat breeding: Goats mature at a very early age. It is advisable that both the male and .female should reach the age of nine months and twelve to eighteen mouths respectively before being bred.
Oestrus Cycle: 21-28 days. He til period: 24-48 hours.
Since ovulation (shedding of the ova) occurs towards the end i heat, the best time to mate the doe is about 12 hours before the end of heat. The signs of heat includes:
1. bleating (irritating noise making)
2. riding other goats
3. tail shaking
4. swollen and reddened vulva
5. tendency to urinate frequently
gestation period: 5 months or 150 days.
Goat kid three times in two years. One to three kids are normally given birth to at one kidding or parturition.
Young kids should be allowed to take their mothers colostrum.
Weaning: 4-6 months of age.
Castration: males .not required for breeding should be castrated at one to four weeks of age. The remaining ones can then be managed under any of the following management systems
(c) Management Systems for Goats
Goat may be managed under:
1. Extensive system Intensive system
2. Intensive system.
3. Semi-intensive system
1. Extensive System: Under this system, the goats are given all freedom to wander about in search of feed tor themselves. They h id on grasses and kitchen wastes. No deliberate attempt is made to house the goats although they are sometimes provided shelter at nights.
Goats reared under this system are very destructive as they feed on almost all economic plants and even human food.
2. Intensive system: In this system the goats are continuously housed. Feed and water are provided for them in the pens. The houses provide protection against environmental hazards and predators. The destructive aspect of goats is also controlled.
The pens, water troughs and feeding devices are cleaned regularly to ensure good hygiene. De-worming and spraying against parasites are common practices with goats reared under the intensive systems of management, i mats do well under this system of rearing.
3. Semi- intensive system: This involves rearing of goats in pastures. The goats are rotated from pasture. This is called controlled grazing. Some pens are provided in the pasture land. It combines the advantages of intensive system management.
Tethering is generally part of the semi-intensive method of goat keeping since fences are expensive. Tethering involves tying it a rope to a stake or tree. They feed from that stand.
The areas they can browse depends on the length of the rope. It is better lo tether goats in small huts with roofs or under tree shades where forage crops are brought to them in order to avoid harsh environmental conditions. This system of management is cheap.
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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90. MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
142. FIELD MACHINES
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
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