BASIC LAWS AND REGULATION OF FISHING
Fishery regulation is a set of rules and laws governing the exploitation and other practices of fishery resources, especially in open access water.
In other words, fishery regulations are laws made by the government in order to control and protect fish harvesting so that they do not go into extinction and for them (fishes) to be in regular supply from time to time.
Fishery regulations or decree in Nigeria was promulgated in 1971 during General Yakubu Gowon’s regime.
The regulations are:
(1) Close season: This is a regulation in which no fishing is permitted to take place for a given period of time. This allows the smaller fishes to grow and mature.
(3) Mesh size regulation: This invo
lves the use of a particular inesh of net size that only the matured fishes are caught, Thus protecting the young ones
(4) Regular stocking: This involves the addition of compactable species of fish to increase the population of fishes in water
(5) Population control: This involves the use of other fish types like claries (catfish) to eat up tilapia or early harvesting to prevent over population
(6) Protection of territorial waters: No vessels (except canoes) shall fish within the first two nautical miles of the water of the Nigerian continental shelf.
(7) Ban on the use of explosives: The use of explosive substances for fishing is prohibited because it often results in the death of both the mature and the young fishes.
(8) Ban on the use of chemicals or poisonous materials: The use of noxious or poisonous chemical is prohibited because it also results in the death of both matured and the young ones.
(9) Landing tax: Landing tax should be introduced such that total catch and sizes of fish should be taxed at the site of landing.
(10) Allocation of fishing areas: fishing areas are allocated to individual fisherman so as to curb indiscriminate interference within large fishing areas.
(11) Restriction on breeding section: The breeding section of water should be identified so as to restrict fishing in that section.
(12) Ban on discharge of pollutants or toxic substances: Pollutants or toxic materials should not be discharged into the Nigerian waters.
(13) Prohibition of dumping toxic materials: The dumping of toxic materials or industrial wastes should be prohibited in fishing areas or water.
(14) Certification for consumption: There should be certification that fishes to be sold to the public are safe for human consumption.
(15) Prohibition on killing of endangered species: The law that forbids the killing of endangered aquatic animals should be prohibited.
(16) Ban on electro-fishing: Electro-fishing is outlawed except for research purpose.
WAYS OF MAKING FISHERY REGULATIONS EFFECTIVE IN THE WORLD
There are several ways in which fishery regulations can be made effective in Nigeria. These are:
(1) Use of local or native languages: The fishery regulations should be written and made available in local or native languages.
(2) Simple presentation to fishermen: The regulations should be presented to the fishing community or fishermen in very simple ways.
(3) Wife publicity to create awareness: : The regulations should be given wide publicity, using radio, television, posters, leaflet/handbills in order to bring such to the awareness of the people.
(4) Use of law enforcement agents: Appropriate law enforcement agents should be used to enforce the regulations.
(5) Revocation of licences: There should be revocation or withdrawal of licences of defaulting fishermen.
(6) Prosecution of defaulters: There should be prosecution of defaulting fishermen.
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WEED AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUGRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGES
8. CROP ROTATION
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
16. CROP ROTATION