ANIMAL BY-PRODUCTS OF SKIN AND HIDES, FUR AND BONES AND USES
By –products derived from farm animals include hides and skin, fur, wool, feathers, horns, milk, egg, meat, tail of animal, bone, blood and manure (dung)
HIDES AND SKIN
- Hides and skin: hides and skin are derived from the skin of cattle, sheep, goat, pig and rabbit
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF HIDES AND SKIN
i. Hides and skin are processed into leather for the manufacture of bags, shoes, ropes and foot wears
ii. Hides and skin serve as source of income to farmers
iii. Hides and skin can be processed into meat
iv. They are used in clothing materials, such as jacket
v. They are also used as ornamentals and other decorative household materials
- Wool and Fur: wool is the hair derived from sheep while fur is the hair derived from rabbit. These products are found on the body of these farm animal
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF WOOL AND FUR
i. Wool is used for the manufacture of brushes
ii. It is also used as clothing material like jacket
iii. It can be used in the manufacturing of blankets and rugs
HORNS, MILK AND EGG
- Horns: Horns are derived from animals like cattle, sheep and goat. They are found in the head region of these animals
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF HORNS
i. Horns are used industrially as raw materials in knife handles and belt heads.
ii. They are used for decorative purposes and as ornamentals
iii. They can be used to make fertilizers because they are rich in calcium and phosphorus.
iv. They are also used as feed for livestock because of high level of calcium and phosphorus.
v. Some are used in music and other dance
vi. To the animals, they are used for fighting or defending themselves against enemies.
Milk is derived from farm animals like cow (cattle), ewe (sheep), sows (pigs) and doe (goat). The part which produces this milk is the mammary gland or udder. The milk can be extracted from the animals by milking manually (using hands) or mechanically (by the use of milking machines). The milk so derived from these animals can be made fir for consumption by man through a processes called pasteurization.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF HORNS
i. Milk is a source of protein in food
ii. It can be used in raising foster calves, lambs or children
iii. It is used in the preparation of baby food
iv. It supplies minerals to livestock.
v. It is used as extender in artificial insemination practices.
vi. It is used in the preparation of diary products such as butter, cheese and yoghurt.
eggs are mainly produced by poultry birds such as white leghorn, brown leghorn, and Rhode Island Red. Others are geese, turkey and guinea fowls
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF EGG
i. Egg is a source of protein in human food or diet
ii. It is used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals
iii. Egg is industrially processed and is used to make paints and vanishes or printer’s ink.
iv. Egg is used in the production of adhesives
v. Egg shells are used in making seouring powder.
vi. Egg shell is a source of calcium in poultry feed/animal feed.
vii. Egg is used for reproduction.
viii. It is also used for manufacturing of vaccines
ix. It is used in cosmetics
MEAT, MANURE AND BONE
The major product of farm animal is the meat.
Meat: meat is derived from all farm animals. Meat has different times depending on the animal from which it is derived. For examples.
(i) Meat of cattle is called
(ii) Meat of pigs is called pork
(iii) Meat of sheep is called mutton
(iv) Meat of goat is called goat meat
(v) Meat of domestic fowl is called chicken.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF MEAT
i. Meat is a source of protein for man
ii. It is also a protein source for livestock feed e.g meat meal
iii. It is also used in the making of vaccines and drugs
iv. It provides minerals and vitamins for good health.
v. It is used in pharmaceuticals
vi. It is used in the production of hormones
vii. It is a source of income to farmers and the nation.
Animal dung or manure
: animal dung or manure is produced by farm animals. The quality of manure produced depends on the animal, age of animal, the nutrition of the animal and physiological state of the feed. The manure of poultry birds is richer than al other farm animals closely followed by the manure of rabbit.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF MANURE
i. Animal dung or manure returns nutrients to the soil
ii. It improves the texture and structure of the soil
iii. It encourages the activities of soil organisms.
iv. It improves water conservation in the soil
v. It regulates the temperature fluctuation in the soil.
vi. It prevents soil erosion.
vii. It has a buffering effect on the soil.
: bone is also derived from all farm animals. Reasonable quantity is however obtained from cattle, sheep and goat.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF BONE
i. Bone is crushed and processed as bone meal for livestock feed.
ii. It is rich in calcium and phosphorus which aid the development of bones and teeth in man.
iii. It can be used in the making of shoes, especially the lower part of the shoe.
iv. Vaccines and hormones are synthesized from bone marrow.
v. Bone is useful in the development of egg shell in poultry.
BLOOD, FEATHERS AND TAIL OF ANIMAL
: Blood is also obtained from all farm animals, especially cattle, sheep, goat and pigs. Blood is derived from these animals during slaughtering.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF BLOOD
i. Blood is processed into blood meal used in livestock feed as a source of protein
ii. It is also rich in vitamins and minerals
iii. It can be used in pharmaceuticals industries.
iv. Certain hormones can be synthesized from blood.
10. Feathers: feathers are found on the body, wings and tail of poultry birds such as domestic fowl, turkey, geese and ducks.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF FEATHERS
(a) To the birds
(i) They serve as protection for body
(ii) They are used for flight
(iii) They keep birds warm.
(b) To man
(i) For making pillows
(ii) For making cushions
(iii) For making mattresses
(iv) For making dusters.
Tail of Animal With Hair (undressed)
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF TAIL
(a) To man
(i) It is a rich source of protein, e.g cow tail pepper soup
(ii) The tail can be used as a whip by man
(iii) It is used for some traditional outings in some societies.
(b) To the animals
(i) It is used for protection, e.g defense
(ii) It is used for driving away flies
(iii) It is used for communication (i.e. during stress they wag their tails)
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