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Definition: Ageing population is defined as a declining population with an increasing percentage of old people, while the relative percentage of children and workers are decreasing.

Ageing or declining population is also known as a stationary or static population.


  •  Decrease in birth rate: A fall or decrease in birth rate generally let declining population. This might be to implementation of birth control marriages.

  •  Increase in death rate: A rise increase in the death rate of the young ones through epidemics or poor i facilities generally leads to a reduction the number of people in the country.

  •  Emigration: The movement of young men or youth out of a country can also lead to declining population.
  •  War: The existence of war also lead to declining population as able-bodies are lost during war.

  •  Diseases: The outbreak of disease also lead to decrease in population as this reduces the number of young ones are mostly the country.

  •  Natural disasters: Natural disasters flood and earthquakes can lead to declining population, especially w; young ones are mostly affected.

  •  Poor medical facilities:


  • Reduction in government expenditure: A declining population have fewer people to cater for and as a result there will be a reduction in expenditure by government.
  • High standard of living: Standard of living has something to do with the number of people and the available resources. With fewer people coupled with increasing resources, this will cause an increase in per capita income, which will result in higher standard of living.

  • Reduction in congestion: As a result of decrease in the number of people, there will be a corresponding decrease in congestion in terms of human, accommodation and vehicular traffic.

  • Creation of job: As a result of increase m the number of old people, there will be creation of more employment opportunities for the few labour force.

  • Increase in savings: With decreasing copulation there is an increase in savings on the part of government.

  • Increase in investment: As a result of the increase in savings, there will be enough capital for investment in important sectors of the economy.


  • Reduction in labour force: As a result of the decrease in the number of working class citizens or increase in the number of old people, there will be a reduction in the number of the labour force.

  • Fall in gross domestic product (GDP): The fall in the size of the labour force would result in a fall in the productive capacity of the country. The small labour force, combined with its in ability to make optimum use of available resources, results in low savings and a fall in gross domestic product.

  • Less mobility of labour: As a result of the increasing number of old people, mobility of labour becomes difficult as old people may either stay at home or refuse to accept new ways of doing things.

  • Risk of invasion: Due to the increase in the number of old people in a country, the risk of invasion by external forces is very high.

  • It leads to under-population: A decreasing population in any nation can lead to under-population.

  • High dependency ratio: When the population of the old people and the children are higher than that of the working class population, it will result in a high dependency ratio.

  • Reduction in tax: As a result of the increase in the number of old people, who are not taxable, the tax expected from the few that are working will be reduced.

  • Changes in pattern of demand: In a decreasing population, there will be a shift in demand in favour of goods and services used by old people.

  • Lower reward for factors of production: There will be a fall in demand as a result of decrease in total demand for goods and services. Consequently, the amount of rewards associated with the factors of production will fall.

  • Increase in government expenditure: As a result of increase in the number of old people, government would be required to spend more money in the provision of goods and services for the old people.
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